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2012年考研英語一真題原文及答案解析完整版

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2012年考研英語一真題原文及答案解析完整版

Section I Use of English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

The ethical judgments of the Supreme Court justices have become an important issue recently. The court cannot _1_ its legitimacy as guardian of the rule of law _2_ justices behave like politicians. Yet, in several instances, justices acted in ways that _3_ the court’s reputation for being independent and impartial.

Justice Antonin Scalia, for example, appeared at political events. That kind of activity makes it less likely that the court’s decisions will be _4_ as impartial judgments. Part of the problem is that the justices are not _5_by an ethics code. At the very least, the court should make itself _6_to the code of conduct that _7_to the rest of the federal judiciary.

This and other similar cases _8_the question of whether there is still a _9_between the court and politics.

The framers of the Constitution envisioned law _10_having authority apart from politics. They gave justices permanent positions _11_they would be free to _12_ those in power and have no need to _13_ political support. Our legal system was designed to set law apart from politics precisely because they are so closely _14_.

Constitutional law is political because it results from choices rooted in fundamental social _15_ like liberty and property. When the court deals with social policy decisions, the law it _16_ is inescapably political-which is why decisions split along ideological lines are so easily _17_ as unjust.

The justices must _18_ doubts about the court’s legitimacy by making themselves _19_ to the code of conduct. That would make rulings more likely to be seen as separate from politics and, _20_, convincing as law.

1. [A]emphasize [B]maintain [C]modify [D] recognize

2. [A]when [B]lest [C]before [D] unless

3. [A]restored [B]weakened [C]established [D] eliminated

4. [A]challenged [B]compromised [C]suspected [D] accepted

5. [A]advanced [B]caught [C]bound [D]founded

6. [A]resistant [B]subject [C]immune [D]prone

7. [A]resorts [B]sticks [C]loads [D]applies

8. [A]evade [B]raise [C]deny [D]settle

9. [A]line [B]barrier [C]similarity [D]conflict

10. [A]by [B]as [C]though [D]towards

11. [A]so [B]since [C]provided [D]though

12. [A]serve [B]satisfy [C]upset [D]replace

13. [A]confirm [B]express [C]cultivate [D]offer

14. [A]guarded [B]followed [C]studied [D]tied

15. [A]concepts [B]theories [C]divisions [D]conceptions

16. [A]excludes [B]questions [C]shapes [D]controls

17. [A]dismissed [B]released [C]ranked [D]distorted

18. [A]suppress [B]exploit [C]address [D]ignore

19. [A]accessible [B]amiable [C]agreeable [D]accountable

20. [A]by all mesns [B]atall costs [C]in a word [D]as a result

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Text 1

Come on -Everybody’s doing it. That whispered message, half invitation and half forcing, is what most of us think of when we hear the words peer pressure. It usually leads to no good-drinking, drugs and casual sex. But in her new book Join the Club, Tina Rosenberg contends that peer pressure can also be a positive force through what she calls the social cure, in which organizations and officials use the power of group dynamics to help individuals improve their lives and possibly the word.

Rosenberg, the recipient of a Pulitzer Prize, offers a host of example of the social cure in action: In South Carolina, a state-sponsored antismoking program called Rage Against the Haze sets out to make cigarettes uncool. In South Africa, an HIV-prevention initiative known as LoveLife recruits young people to promote safe sex among their peers.

The idea seems promising,and Rosenberg is a perceptive observer. Her critique of the lameness of many pubic-health campaigns is spot-on: they fail to mobilize peer pressure for healthy habits, and they demonstrate a seriously flawed understanding of psychology.” Dare to be different, please don’t smoke!” pleads one billboard campaign aimed at reducing smoking among teenagers-teenagers, who desire nothing more than fitting in. Rosenberg argues convincingly that public-health advocates ought to take a page from advertisers, so skilled at applying peer pressure.

But on the general effectiveness of the social cure, Rosenberg is less persuasive. Join the Club is filled with too much irrelevant detail and not enough exploration of the social and biological factors that make peer pressure so powerful. The most glaring flaw of the social cure as it’s presented here is that it doesn’t work very well for very long. Rage Against the Haze failed once state funding was cut. Evidence that the LoveLife program produces lasting changes is limited and mixed.

There’s no doubt that our peer groups exert enormous influence on our behavior. An emerging body of research shows that positive health habits-as well as negative ones-spread through networks of friends via social communication. This is a subtle form of peer pressure: we unconsciously imitate the behavior we see every day.

Far less certain, however, is how successfully experts and bureaucrats can select our peer groups and steer their activities in virtuous directions. It’s like the teacher who breaks up the troublemakers in the back row by pairing them with better-behaved classmates. The tactic never really works. And that’s the problem with a social cure engineered from the outside: in the real world, as in school, we insist on choosing our own friends.

21. According to the first paragraph, peer pressure often emerges as

[A] a supplement to the social cure

[B] a stimulus to group dynamics

[C] an obstacle to school progress

[D] a cause of undesirable behaviors

22. Rosenberg holds that public advocates should

[A] recruit professional advertisers

[B] learn from advertisers’ experience

[C] stay away from commercial advertisers

[D] recognize the limitations of advertisements

23. In the author’s view, Rosenberg’s book fails to

[A] adequately probe social and biological factors

[B] effectively evade the flaws of the social cure

[C] illustrate the functions of state funding

[D]produce a long-lasting social effect

24. Paragraph 5shows that our imitation of behaviors

[A] is harmful to our networks of friends

[B] will mislead behavioral studies

[C] occurs without our realizing it

[D] can produce negative health habits

25. The author suggests in the last paragraph that the effect of peer pressure is

[A] harmful

[B] desirable

[C] profound

[D] questionable

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Text 1

Come on -Everybody’s doing it. That whispered message, half invitation and half forcing, is what most of us think of when we hear the words peer pressure. It usually leads to no good-drinking, drugs and casual sex. But in her new book Join the Club, Tina Rosenberg contends that peer pressure can also be a positive force through what she calls the social cure, in which organizations and officials use the power of group dynamics to help individuals improve their lives and possibly the word.

Rosenberg, the recipient of a Pulitzer Prize, offers a host of example of the social cure in action: In South Carolina, a state-sponsored antismoking program called Rage Against the Haze sets out to make cigarettes uncool. In South Africa, an HIV-prevention initiative known as LoveLife recruits young people to promote safe sex among their peers.

The idea seems promising,and Rosenberg is a perceptive observer. Her critique of the lameness of many pubic-health campaigns is spot-on: they fail to mobilize peer pressure for healthy habits, and they demonstrate a seriously flawed understanding of psychology.” Dare to be different, please don’t smoke!” pleads one billboard campaign aimed at reducing smoking among teenagers-teenagers, who desire nothing more than fitting in. Rosenberg argues convincingly that public-health advocates ought to take a page from advertisers, so skilled at applying peer pressure.

But on the general effectiveness of the social cure, Rosenberg is less persuasive. Join the Club is filled with too much irrelevant detail and not enough exploration of the social and biological factors that make peer pressure so powerful. The most glaring flaw of the social cure as it’s presented here is that it doesn’t work very well for very long. Rage Against the Haze failed once state funding was cut. Evidence that the LoveLife program produces lasting changes is limited and mixed.

There’s no doubt that our peer groups exert enormous influence on our behavior. An emerging body of research shows that positive health habits-as well as negative ones-spread through networks of friends via social communication. This is a subtle form of peer pressure: we unconsciously imitate the behavior we see every day.

Far less certain, however, is how successfully experts and bureaucrats can select our peer groups and steer their activities in virtuous directions. It’s like the teacher who breaks up the troublemakers in the back row by pairing them with better-behaved classmates. The tactic never really works. And that’s the problem with a social cure engineered from the outside: in the real world, as in school, we insist on choosing our own friends.

21. According to the first paragraph, peer pressure often emerges as

[A] a supplement to the social cure

[B] a stimulus to group dynamics

[C] an obstacle to school progress

[D] a cause of undesirable behaviors

22. Rosenberg holds that public advocates should

[A] recruit professional advertisers

[B] learn from advertisers’ experience

[C] stay away from commercial advertisers

[D] recognize the limitations of advertisements

23. In the author’s view, Rosenberg’s book fails to

[A] adequately probe social and biological factors

[B] effectively evade the flaws of the social cure

[C] illustrate the functions of state funding

[D]produce a long-lasting social effect

24. Paragraph 5shows that our imitation of behaviors

[A] is harmful to our networks of friends

[B] will mislead behavioral studies

[C] occurs without our realizing it

[D] can produce negative health habits

25. The author suggests in the last paragraph that the effect of peer pressure is

[A] harmful

[B] desirable

[C] profound

[D] questionable

Text 3

In the idealized version of how science is done, facts about the world are waiting to be observed and collected by objective researchers who use the scientific method to carry out their work. But in the everyday practice of science, discovery frequently follows an ambiguous and complicated route. We aim to be objective, but we cannot escape the context of our unique life experience. Prior knowledge and interest influence what we experience, what we think our experiences mean, and the subsequent actions we take. Opportunities for misinterpretation, error, and self-deception abound.

Consequently, discovery claims should be thought of as protoscience. Similar to newly staked mining claims, they are full of potential. But it takes collective scrutiny and acceptance to transform a discovery claim into a mature discovery. This is the credibility process, through which the individual researcher’s me, here, now becomes the community’s anyone, anywhere, anytime. Objective knowledge is the goal, not the starting point.

Once a discovery claim becomes public, the discoverer receives intellectual credit. But, unlike with mining claims, the community takes control of what happens next. Within the complex social structure of the scientific community, researchers make discoveries; editors and reviewers act as gatekeepers by controlling the publication process; other scientists use the new finding to suit their own purposes; and finally, the public (including other scientists) receives the new discovery and possibly accompanying technology. As a discovery claim works it through the community, the interaction and confrontation between shared and competing beliefs about the science and the technology involved transforms an individual’s discovery claim into the community’s credible discovery.

Two paradoxes exist throughout this credibility process. First, scientific work tends to focus on some aspect of prevailing Knowledge that is viewed as incomplete or incorrect. Little reward accompanies duplication and confirmation of what is already known and believed. The goal is new-search, not re-search. Not surprisingly, newly published discovery claims and credible discoveries that appear to be important and convincing will always be open to challenge and potential modification or refutation by future researchers. Second, novelty itself frequently provokes disbelief. Nobel Laureate and physiologist Albert Azent-Gyorgyi once described discovery as “seeing what everybody has seen and thinking what nobody has thought.” But thinking what nobody else has thought and telling others what they have missed may not change their views. Sometimes years are required for truly novel discovery claims to be accepted and appreciated.

In the end, credibility “happens” to a discovery claim - a process that corresponds to what philosopher Annette Baier has described as the commons of the mind. “We reason together, challenge, revise, and complete each other’s reasoning and each other’s conceptions of reason.”

31. According to the first paragraph, the process of discovery is characterized by its

[A] uncertainty and complexity.

[B] misconception and deceptiveness.

[C] logicality and objectivity.

[D] systematicness and regularity.

32. It can be inferred from Paragraph 2 that credibility process requires

[A] strict inspection.

[B]shared efforts.

[C] individual wisdom.

[D]persistent innovation.

33.Paragraph 3 shows that a discovery claim becomes credible after it

[A] has attracted the attention of the general public.

[B]has been examined by the scientific community.

[C] has received recognition from editors and reviewers.

[D]has been frequently quoted by peer scientists.

34. Albert Szent-Gy?rgyi would most likely agree that

[A] scientific claims will survive challenges.

[B]discoveries today inspire future research.

[C] efforts to make discoveries are justified.

[D]scientific work calls for a critical mind.

35.Which of the following would be the best title of the test?

[A] Novelty as an Engine of Scientific Development.

[B]Collective Scrutiny in Scientific Discovery.

[C] Evolution of Credibility in Doing Science.

[D]Challenge to Credibility at the Gate to Science.

Text 4

If the trade unionist Jimmy Hoffa were alive today, he would probably represent civil servant. When Hoffa’s Teamsters were in their prime in 1960, only one in ten American government workers belonged to a union; now 36% do. In 2009 the number of unionists in America’s public sector passed that of their fellow members in the private sector. In Britain, more than half of public-sector workers but only about 15% of private-sector ones are unionized.

There are three reasons for the public-sector unions’ thriving. First, they can shut things down without suffering much in the way of consequences. Second, they are mostly bright and well-educated. A quarter of America’s public-sector workers have a university degree. Third, they now dominate left-of-centre politics. Some of their ties go back a long way. Britain’s Labor Party, as its name implies, has long been associated with trade unionism. Its current leader, Ed Miliband, owes his position to votes from public-sector unions.

At the state level their influence can be even more fearsome. Mark Baldassare of the Public Policy Institute of California points out that much of the state’s budget is patrolled by unions. The teachers’ unions keep an eye on schools, the CCPOA on prisons and a variety of labor groups on health care.

In many rich countries average wages in the state sector are higher than in the private one. But the real gains come in benefits and work practices. Politicians have repeatedly “backloaded” public-sector pay deals, keeping the pay increases modest but adding to holidays and especially pensions that are already generous.

Reform has been vigorously opposed, perhaps most egregiously in education, where charter schools, academies and merit pay all faced drawn-out battles. Even though there is plenty of evidence that the quality of the teachers is the most important variable, teachers’ unions have fought against getting rid of bad ones and promoting good ones.

As the cost to everyone else has become clearer, politicians have begun to clamp down. In Wisconsin the unions have rallied thousands of supporters against Scott Walker, the hardline Republican governor. But many within the public sector suffer under the current system, too.

John Donahue at Harvard’s Kennedy School points out that the norms of culture in Western civil services suit those who want to stay put but is bad for high achievers. The only American public-sector workers who earn well above $250,000 a year are university sports coaches and the president of the United States. Bankers’ fat pay packets have attracted much criticism, but a public-sector system that does not reward high achievers may be a much bigger problem for America.

36. It can be learned from the first paragraph that

[A] Teamsters still have a large body of members.

[B] Jimmy Hoffa used to work as a civil servant.

[C] unions have enlarged their public-sector membership.

[D]the government has improved its relationship with unionists.

37. Which of the following is true of Paragraph 2?

[A] Public-sector unions are prudent in taking actions.

[B] Education is required for public-sector union membership.

[C] Labor Party has long been fighting against public-sector unions.

[D]Public-sector unions seldom get in trouble for their actions.

38. It can be learned from Paragraph 4 that the income in the state sector is

[A] illegally secured.

[B] indirectly augmented.

[C] excessively increased.

[D]fairly adjusted.

39. The example of the unions in Wisconsin shows that unions

[A]often run against the current political system.

[B]can change people’s political attitudes.

[C]may be a barrier to public-sector reforms.

[D]are dominant in the government.

40. John Donahue’s attitude towards the public-sector system is one of

[A]disapproval.

[B]appreciation.

[C]tolerance.

[D]indifference.

Part B

Directions:

In the following text, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blanks. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the blanks. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET1.(10 points)

Think of those fleeting moments when you look out of an aeroplane window and realise that you are flying, higher than a bird. Now think of your laptop, thinner than a brown-paper envelope, or your cellphone in the palm of your hand. Take a moment or two to wonder at those marvels. You are the lucky inheritor of a dream come true.

The second half of the 20th century saw a collection of geniuses, warriors, entrepreneurs and visionaries labour to create a fabulous machine that could function as a typewriter and printing press, studio and theatre, paintbrush and gallery, piano and radio, the mail as well as the mail carrier. (41)

The networked computer is an amazing device, the first media machine that serves as the mode of production, means of distribution, site of reception, and place of praise and critique. The computer is the 21st century's culture machine.

But for all the reasons there are to celebrate the computer, we must also tread with caution. (42)I call it a secret war for two reasons. First, most people do not realise that there are strong commercial agendas at work to keep them in passive consumption mode. Second, the majority of people who use networked computers to upload are not even aware of the significance of what they are doing.

All animals download, but only a few upload. Beavers build dams and birds make nests. Yet for the most part, the animal kingdom moves through the world downloading. Humans are unique in their capacity to not only make tools but then turn around and use them to create superfluous material goods - paintings, sculpture and architecture - and superfluous experiences - music, literature, religion and philosophy. (43)

For all the possibilities of our new culture machines, most people are still stuck in download mode. Even after the advent of widespread social media, a pyramid of production remains, with a small number of people uploading material, a slightly larger group commenting on or modifying that content, and a huge percentage remaining content to just consume. (44)

Television is a one-way tap flowing into our homes. The hardest task that television asks of anyone is to turn the power off after he has turned it on.

(45)What counts as meaningful uploading? My definition revolves around the concept of "stickiness" - creations and experiences to which others adhere.

[A] Of course, it is precisely these superfluous things that define human culture and ultimately what it is to be human. Downloading and consuming culture requires great skills, but failing to move beyond downloading is to strip oneself of a defining constituent of humanity.

[B] Applications like tumblr.com, which allow users to combine pictures, words and other media in creative ways and then share them, have the potential to add stickiness by amusing, entertaining and enlightening others.

[C] Not only did they develop such a device but by the turn of the millennium they had also managed to embed it in a worldwide system accessed by billions of people every day.

[D] This is because the networked computer has sparked a secret war between downloading and uploading - between passive consumption and active creation - whose outcome will shape our collective future in ways we can only begin to imagine.

[E] The challenge the computer mounts to television thus bears little similarity to one format being replaced by another in the manner of record players being replaced by CD players.

[F] One reason for the persistence of this pyramid of production is that for the past half-century, much of the world's media culture has been defined by a single medium - television - and television is defined by downloading.

[G]The networked computer offers the first chance in 50 years to reverse the flow, to encourage thoughtful downloading and, even more importantly, meaningful uploading.

Part C

Directions:

Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

Since the days of Aristotle, a search for universal principles has characterized the scientific enterprise. In some ways, this quest for commonalities defines science. Newton’s laws of motion and Darwinian evolution each bind a host of different phenomena into a single explicatory frame work.

(46)In physics, one approach takes this impulse for unification to its extreme, and seeks a theory of everything-a single generative equation for all we see.It is becoming less clear, however, that such a theory would be a simplification, given the dimensions and universes that it might entail, nonetheless, unification of sorts remains a major goal.

This tendency in the natural sciences has long been evident in the social sciences too. (47)Here, Darwinism seems to offer justification for it all humans share common origins it seems reasonable to suppose that cultural diversity could also be traced to more constrained beginnings. Just as the bewildering variety of human courtship rituals might all be considered forms of sexual selection, perhaps the world’s languages, music, social and religious customs and even history are governed by universal features. (48)To filter out what is unique from what is shared might enable us to understand how complex cultural behavior arose and what guides it in evolutionary or cognitive terms.

That, at least, is the hope. But a comparative study of linguistic traits published online today supplies a reality check. Russell Gray at the University of Auckland and his colleagues consider the evolution of grammars in the light of two previous attempts to find universality in language.

The most famous of these efforts was initiated by Noam Chomsky, who suggested that humans are born with an innate language-acquisition capacity that dictates a universal grammar. A few generative rules are then sufficient to unfold the entire fundamental structure of a language, which is why children can learn it so quickly.

(49)The second, by Joshua Greenberg, takes a more empirical approach to universality identifying traits (particularly in word order) shared by many language which are considered to represent biases that result from cognitive constraints

Gray and his colleagues have put them to the test by examining four family trees that between them represent more than 2,000 languages.(50)Chomsky’s grammar should show patterns of language change that are independent of the family tree or the pathway tracked through it. Whereas Greenbergian universality predicts strong co-dependencies between particular types of word-order relations. Neither of these patterns is borne out by the analysis, suggesting that the structures of the languages are lire age-specific and not governed by universals

Section III Writing

Part A

51. Directions:

Some internationals students are coming to your university. Write them an email in the name of the Students’ Union to

1) extend your welcome and

2) provide some suggestions for their campus life here.

You should write about 100 words on ANSWER SHEET2.Do not sign your name at the end of the letter. Use “Li Ming” instead.

Do not write the address(10 points)

Part B

52. Directions: write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay you should

1) describe the drawing briefly

2) explain its intended meaning, and

3) give your comments

You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET2.(20 points)

答案解析:

1.【答案】B

【解析】從空后信息可以看出,這句表達的是"_ _法官表現得像政治家"的情況下,法庭就不能保持其作為法律法規的合法衛士的形象,所以應該選C,maintain"維持,保持",其他顯然語義不通。

2.【答案】A

【解析】從第三段可以看出,文章認為法院和政治之間應該是有界限的。所以這里應該是當法官像政治家一樣行事,模糊了二者之間的區別時,就失去了其作為法律衛士的合法性。只有B,when表示這個意思。

3.【答案】B

【解析】第二段給的具體事例說明,法官出現在政治活動中會使法官形象受損,影響他們獨立、公正的名聲。只有B,weaken能表示這個意思。

4.【答案】D

【解析】空前信息顯示,法官出席政治活動會讓法院的審判收到影響,人們就會認為其審判不公正,所以選D,be accepted as..."被認為是"。

5.【答案】C

【解析】空所在的語境為:產生這樣的問題,部分原因在于"法官沒有_ _道德規范"。后一句話說,至少法院應該遵守行為規范,這顯然是進一步說明上一句話。所以上一句是說法官沒有受到道德規范的約束,選C,bound。

6.【答案】B

【解析】根據解析5可以看出,這里應該是說遵守行為規范,subject與to連用,表示"服從某物,受…支配"。故本題選B。

7.【答案】D

【解析】分析句子結構可知,這里是由that引導的定語從句修飾說明前面的行為規范,是說法院也應當遵守適用于其他聯邦司法部的行為規范。apply to "適用于"符合題意。resort to "求助于";stick to "堅持(原則等)"語意不通。

8.【答案】B

【解析】空所在的語境為,類似這樣的案例提出了這樣一個問題:法院和政治之間是否還存在著界限。提出問題,產生問題用只能選raise。

9.【答案】A

【解析】根據第8題可知,空內應填line,"界限"。 barrier "障礙",similarity"相似性",conflict"沖突"都不合題意。

10.【答案】B

【解析】根據句意,憲法的起草者們預想的是將司法從政治中分出來,讓其享有獨立的權力。envision as "將…想象成…"。所以選B。

11.【答案】A

【解析】本題考察邏輯搭配。本選項答案的確定需結合前句意思,制憲者旨在使法律不受政治的任何影響,這樣一來,法官就可以免受掌權者的影響了。此空就是考察由此所帶來的結果,故選[A]。

12.【答案】C

【解析】此題承接上題,可知法律不受政治的影響,從而法官也不用擔心掌權者(those in power)。

13.【答案】C

【解析】此題承接上題, 結合句意, 可知該半句主要表達"法官也無需政治支持了。"選項C最符題意。

14.【答案】D

【解析】此題考察詞意辨析。原句表達"我們的法律體系是法律完全不受政治的影響,是因為這兩者是緊密。。。"。結合句意思,[D]最合題意.

15.【答案】A

【解析】此題考察詞意辨析。文中說"憲法具有政治性,是因其的選擇都是植根于諸如自由,財產之類的基本社會。。。中。"自由,財產是西方社會的一些基本社會理念或概念,故選[A]。

16.【答案】C

【解析】此題考察詞意辨析。首先分析該句,可知空白處添加上一動詞可構成一定語從句,限定"the law"。其次,文中語境表達"當法律處理社會政策決策問題時,。。。的法律不可避免的具有政治性。四個選項中,[C]為最佳答案。

17.【答案】A

【解析】此題考察詞意辨析。可由文中語境得知,該半句主要表達"這也就解釋了為何背離思想路線的決策被看作是不公正的,從而被輕易的…."。結合語境,以及四個選項的意思,可知[A]最佳。

18.【答案】C

【解析】此題考察詞意辨析。由文中語境可知該句主要表達"法官必須。。。有關法庭(裁決的)公正合理的質疑。"四個選項中,僅[C]符合題意。

19.【答案】D

【解析】本題考察短語搭配及相似短語辨析。四個選項均可與連用,其中

accessible to 易接近的;可歸屬的;可得到的可歸因的

amiable to可親,多指人和藹可親,易于接近

agreeable to欣然同意的;適合的,適宜的

accountable to對…負責

此題的理解需承接整個句, 首先此空所在后半句乃一方式狀語,承接前半句說明法官怎樣來解決有關法庭(裁決的)公正合理的質疑。將此四個選項分別代入,可得出正確答案[D],法官只有對對行為準則負責,也即是遵循一定的行為準則才可確保其裁決的公正與合理。

20.【答案】D

【解析】此題考察邏輯搭配。此句承接上句,旨在說明由此帶來的結果,也即是文中所說的"。。。使得裁決看起來完全不受政治的影響,如法律一般令人信服。" 結合四個選項意思,可知選[D]。

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A

Text 1

21.【答案】D

【解析】文章首段包含了兩方面的內容,作者先簡單介紹Peer pressure,再引出Tina Rosenberg在她的新書Join the Club中對于peer pressure的看法,這篇文章是以一篇書評的形式出現。而題目"根據第一段,同伴壓力的出現常常是…"問的僅僅是同伴壓力,并無涉及到Tina Rosenberg或者她的新書,因此答案則應主要涉及文章對于peer pressure的介紹,而非Tina對于peer pressure的看法。首段第三句說"(同伴壓力)通常引起不好的事情,如酗酒,嗑藥,亂交",故答案選D,說明同伴壓力出現導致的結果,這里的答案使用了同義替換的方式。

22.【答案】B

【解析】根據題干關鍵詞"public-health advocates"可以定位到第三段最后一句話"Rosenberg argues convincingly that public-health advocates ought to take a page from advertisers, so skilled at applying peer pressure",即應該向廣告商學習,這里主要是對于短語"take a page from"的理解,答案選B

23.【答案】A

【解析】根據題干"在作者看來,Rosenberg的書沒能…",所選答案是要找出作者看來這本書的缺點是什么。文章第四段第一句話說"但是,在…方面,Rosenberg不太有說服力",緊接著說"Join the Club中太多無關的細節,而對于使同伴壓力能產生如此大作用的社會和生物因素并未做足夠的探究",這句話充分說明了在作者心目中這本書的不足在哪兒,故答案選A

24.【答案】C

【解析】這是一道細節題。文章第五段首句告訴我們peer groups確實會對行為產生很大的影響,第二句具體說明影響的內容,即好的習慣和不好的習慣都會通過社會交際在朋友圈中傳遞,最后一句則對這種影響進行了總結,"這是同伴壓力的細微表現,我們無意識地模仿日常所見到的行為"。而分析題干和選項,我們發現該題是對"imitation of behavior"進行歸納,回到原文,找到"我們無意識地模仿日常所見到的行為",答案即刻清晰,這里是對unconsciously一詞進行了釋義,因此C選項正確。

25.【答案】D

【解析】這道題考查作者對于peer pressure所能帶來的影響的態度,作者通過最后一段第一句話首先向我們表明他對"專家和其他官方人員是否能成功選擇同伴來引導他們的行為朝好的方向發展"的不肯定,接下來以教師指導學生的例子為說明,得出結論"The tactic never really works."(這個策略從來沒有真正起作用)。通過作者的這樣一番描述,可以看出,作者對于peer pressure是否能有效果是質疑的,故答案選D。

Text 2

26.【答案】C

【解析】

reneging 的原形是renege,本議是"食言""否認"之意,為反向意義詞。而四個選項中A 中的condemning 意為"譴責""處刑"B中的reaffirming 意為"重申""再肯定,再斷言",C中的dishonoring的意為"拒付,不兌付",在意思和方向上都符合,D中securing 意為"保證,使保險"的含義。本文主要在說Entergy這個公司不兌現自己的諾言,所以應選C項。

27.【答案】D

【解析】

本題答案定位在文中第三段每二句話,As a condition of receiving state approval for the sale , the company agreed to seek permission from state regulators to operate past 2012. "as a condition of"可以理解為"為了",D 項中的"purchase "一詞就是對文中"sale"的替換。

28.【答案】A

【解析】

題干:"根據第四段Entergy公司似乎在它的••••上存在著問題",題目中已清晰把答案范圍確定在第四段,通過閱讀第四段我們可以看到Entergy公司出現了一系列的事故"a string of accidents",而后面的這句"raised serious questions about both Vermont Yankee's safety and Entergy's management"就是本題的答案所在了。其中 "managerial" "management"仍是同一單詞的變形。

29.【答案】D

【解析】

首先從題干知道考查的是作者的觀點。 "佛蒙特州事件"和will test在文章中的定位是在第5段第5句話,"Vermont case will offer a precedent-setting test of how far those powers extend"意思是"佛蒙特州事件將會檢驗是這些權利延伸多遠的先例"。這句話是legal scholars的觀點。重點是理解certainly和but后面的意思。雖然作者承認擔憂如果每個周各行其是的后果是合理的,但是But后面是個虛擬語氣,與事實相反。所以作者的真正態度是支持legal scholars的觀點,即佛蒙特州事件是對州法規的權限的考驗。How far those power extended與D選項的the limits of states' power與選項D"各州在核問題上的權限"是相匹配的,因此正確答案為D。其他選項與"佛蒙特州事件"帶來的檢驗,文中并未直接提及。

30.【答案】A

【解析】

最后一段主要講的是"Entergy公司的名譽已嚴重受創。該公司向聯邦申請:許可Pilgrim核電站獲得另外20年的開放權。但是作者認為,核管理委員會在審核該公司的申請的時候,務必要考慮下該公司的信譽問題。"A選項"Entergy公司在其它地方的生意將會受到影響"由最后一段的第一句話"Entergy公司的名譽已嚴重受創"就可以推斷出來;B"核管理委員會的權威將會被藐視"最后一段沒給出任何要藐視核管理委員會的暗含信息,因此B選項錯誤;C "Entergy公司將會撤回關于Pilgrim核電站的申請",最后一段同樣沒給出類似的暗含信息;D "Vermont的名聲將會受到破壞" 同樣,從最后一段,根本無法推斷出。因此,最佳答案是A。

Text 3

31.【答案】A

【解析】

這篇文章選自The Scientist,文章題目是The Evolution of Credibility。文章第一段第二句話提到"But in the everyday practice of science, discovery frequently follows an ambiguous and complicated route.",即在每天的科學實踐中,發現所遵循的規律是模棱兩可和復雜的。A項uncertainty and complexity 是對文中ambiguous and complicated的同義替換,所以為正確答案。

B項是利用文中最后一句話的干擾"Opportunities for misinterpretation, error, and self-deception abound",這句話是說"有誤解和自我欺騙的可能",從而導致了科學發現的模棱兩可和復雜性;C項和D項是受文章第一句話的干擾,但是第一句同時提出只有"在理想中(in the idealized version of ...),科學發現才能夠很客觀。

32.【答案】B

【解析】

第二段第二句中提到"But it takes collective scrutiny and acceptance to...",其中it指的是將科學發現獲得公眾可信度的過程。接下來的第四句話具體講到了這個過程:"through which the individual researcher's me, here, now becomes the community's anyone, anywhere, anytime.",即要經歷從個人到集體的過程,需要每個人共同的努力,故答案為B。

33.【答案】B

【解析】

本段第三句話中提到"Within the complex social structure of the scientific community, researchers make discoveries",即"研究者需要在科學團體復雜的社會結構中實現科學發現",在這句話的后面有一個分號,分號后面的三個短句分別解釋了在科學團體中不同身份的人所做的不同工作,如新聞編輯者和評論家需要控制科學發現公開的過程,而另外一些科學家需要同過新的發現來證明已有的發現等。除此之外,最后一句話"transform an individual's discovery claim into the community's credible discovery"即將個人的發現轉換為集體可信的科學發現,故答案為B,即科學發現獲得公眾的可信度需要集體的努力和驗證。

答案A是利用本段首句設置的干擾,屬于主觀臆斷;答案C為干擾項目,以偏概全;答案D文中沒有提及。

34.【答案】D

【解析】

第四段主要講到了科學發現獲得大眾可信度的過程中面臨的兩個矛盾。Albert Szent-Gyorygi的觀點主要針對第二個矛盾,即創新本身經常會引起懷疑。同時他認為科學發現需要"seeing what everybody has seen and thinking what nobody has thought",即看到每個人都已經看到的,并想到別人沒有想到的。這句話暗示了科學發現的過程需要有評判性思維,即我們應該去探求事物。故答案為D。

答案A與本段中講到的第一個矛盾有關;答案B的過渡推斷來自本段最后一句話,這句話的意思是,真正有創新的發現需要時間的驗證來得到公眾的認可。答案C文中沒有提到,屬于主觀臆斷。

35.【答案】C

【解析】

此題考察對全文主旨大意的準確歸納。從整個文章脈絡來看,文章第一段指出任何發現最終的目標是使之客觀化,然而此過程或多或少會受到不同的生活環境的影響;第二段指出這個過程需要公眾共同的努力;第三段具體論述了不同的人在這個過程中需要完成的工作;第四段則提出了使科學發現獲得可信度的過程中所遇到的兩個矛盾;最后一段用Annette Baier的一句話總結了這個過程。由此可知,C項統領全文,為正確答案。答案A項與原文不符;答案B 是第二段中提到的一部分;而答案D只是對第四段的概括。

Text 4

36.【答案】C

【解析】

根據題干定位于第一段When …were in their prime in 1960, only one in ten American government workers belonged to a union; now 36% do. 意思是1960年時,美國政府部門只有1/10的人是工會成員,但是現在比例是36%。所以C選項正確:工會增加了政府部門成員。A選項:Teamster 仍然擁有很多成員。文中只提到了比例,并沒有講具體人數;B:吉米過去是一個公仆。而文中第一句是一個虛擬語氣的句子,"如果他還活著的話,他今天可能代表一名公仆",曲解文意;D:政府改善了與社團的關系。文中并未提及。

37.【答案】D

【解析】

該題很容易根據題干定位于第二段。第二段中有很明顯的first, second, third這些詞,屬于典型的列舉處,最容易出細節題。只需要將各選項與這三點仔細比對即可。A 公共部門組織在采取行動時很謹慎文中并示提及,是對"they now dominate left-of-centre politics"這句話設置的干擾項,"左派"為激進派,不可能謹慎;而B錯在教育不是需要的,而是公務員社團成員受教育程度普遍偏高,并非必需;C工黨長期與公務員社團爭斗,該段倒數第二句指出工會與社團一直有聯系,最后一句講到工會領導Miliband榮登寶座正是因為公務員社團的大力支持,因此與原文相悖;D選項為First, they can shut things down without suffering much in the way of consequences.這句話的同義改寫。意思是"他們可以息事寧人并不用遭受不好的后果"。

38.【答案】B

【解析】

該題很容易定位于文章的第四段。題干是"國家部門人員的工資狀況是"。做這道題要把第四段整體理解。注意But后面的內容,尤其是keeping the pay increases modest but adding to holidays and especially pensions that are already generous。大意是公共部門員工的工資漲幅很小,但是節假日福利津貼很多。B選項的indirectly augment意思是"間接地增加"。和原文意思"公有部門人員的收入是來源于福利等間接收入,而非正常的工資收入"符合。A 通過非法得來文中只提到了國家部門人員的工資比私人企業的要高,整段都未提及來源,故該選項屬于過度推理;C 過度地增長文中并未提及增長的幅度,提到只是通過"暗廂操作"的方式,容易使考生產生誤解;D 很公正地調整與"backloaded"不符。

39.【答案】C

【解析】

題干的意思是"舉威斯康辛社團為例,表明社團_______"。該題根據題干中的專有名詞Wisconsin定位于倒數第二段。由題干可知這是一個例證題,所以需要看文章的第五段。第五段首句Reform has been vigorously opposed。從第六段Wisconsin的例子可以看出,工會集合眾人反對共和黨領導人Scott Walker,正是為了反對改革。所以可以知道工會可能是公共部門改革的一個障礙,C為正確選項。A 經常與當前政治體系對抗文中并未反映often這個程度。B 能夠改變人們的政治態度文中并示提及,D 在政府中占統治地位文中第二句講到社團得到了成千上萬人的支持來對付強硬的共和黨州長,并不能推出該選項之意。

40.【答案】A

【解析】

文中人物的觀點態度題。該題定位于最后一段,第一句話指出John認為西方公共服務中的文化準則適用于想維持原狀的人們而對于有比較高成就的人們就不利了,很明顯持否定態度,最后再次指出不能造福于高成就人們的公共服務系統對于美國可能是一個更大的麻煩,也再次證實了作者的觀點是不支持的即A選項。disapproval"反對",appreciation"欣賞",tolerance"寬容",indifference"冷漠"。

Part B

41.【答案】C

【解析】略讀第一自然段得知這篇文章的主題是科技給人們的生活帶來的便利,重點論述了媒介。此題空在末尾,那么通讀空前的內容,可以找到特征詞或者中心詞"creat a fabulous machine"瀏覽七個選項,C項中的"develop such a device"剛好與此對應

42.【答案】D

【解析】此題空在了段落的中間,需要在空前和空后找關聯詞,空前出現了"reason"這個特征詞,而空后出現了"war"這個特征詞,瀏覽七個選項,D項的"because"和"war"剛好與此對應,所以答案選D.

43.【答案】A

【解析】此題空在段末,因此要在空前以及下一自然段的段首找關聯詞,瀏覽空前可以找到"superfluous material goods" ,而瀏覽下一自然段的句首可找到"download"這個詞;那么瀏覽七個選項,答案A出現了"these superfluous things",接下來也提及到了"download",因此可以鎖定答案A.

44.【答案】F

【解析】此題空在句末,所以需要瀏覽下空前以前下一個自然段的句首,通讀空前的內容可以找到關聯詞"a pyramid of production remains,",而下一個自然段的段首提到了"television",那么瀏覽七個選項,跟此關聯的有兩項E和F,再繼續分析,E項只有"television"這個詞與空后對應,而F項不僅出現了"television"這個詞,而且出現了"this pyramid of production"這個特征詞,所以,答案為F.

45.【答案】G

【解析】此題空在段末,那么需要瀏覽下空前的句子,尋找關聯詞,在B和G之間進行選擇,通讀可知,空前的"flow"與G項的"the flow"是相對應的,B項的"applications"在文中沒有提及,所以此題鎖定答案G

Part C

46. 【解析】本句結構比較簡單,它是一個簡單句,句子主干結構是one approach takes…and seeks…。破折號后面的部分是對前面提到的理論的進一步解釋。

1)take …to extreme…把……發揮到極致,把。。。推至極限

2)theory of everything萬有理論。或者也可以一個短語翻譯出來"適用于任何事物的理論"

3)generative equation生成等式、生成方程。

【參考譯文】物理學中的一個理論把這種歸一的沖動發揮到了極致,它探尋一種萬有理論----一個關于我們能看到的一切的生成方程式。

解析:

47. 【解析】對本句話的理解關鍵在于對for引導的句子的正確理解。因為有兩個逗號,有的同學在考場比較緊急的時間和緊張的狀態下容易把兩個逗號間的部分理解為插入語,那么這句話就很難理解了。

1)for 引導的句子表原因與前句是并列關系,for原因并列句中又包含一個if引導的條件狀語從句

2)"it seems reasonable to suppose that"對這句話的翻譯可以翻譯成一個長句,也可以分開翻譯成"那么假設文化差異也能夠追溯到更有限的源頭, 這種假設看上去便是合理的了。"

3)對于 "cultural diversit"的理解,我們容易受到之前在備考中經常遇到的"cultural diversity"的影響,直接翻譯成"文化多樣性",但在本文,前文很多次提到了共性,所以這里我們翻譯為"文化差異"更合適。

【參考譯文】在這里,達爾文主義似乎提供了有力的理由,因為如果全人類有共同的起源,那么假設文化差異也能夠追溯到更有限的源頭好像就是合理的了。

48. 【解析】這句話結構主要在于對三個"what"從句的理解。本題是三個what引導的從句第一個是what引導的賓語從句,做filter out 的賓語。第二個what是介詞from的賓語,from 是固定搭配中的介詞filter out A from B。第三個what是understand的賓語,和how并列

1)句子主干可以看做:To filter out A from B enables us to understand C and D

A指的是"what is contingent and unique"

B指的是"what is shared" how complex cultural behaviour arose"

C指的是"how complex cultural behaviour arose"

D指的是"what guides it in evolutionary or cognitive terms"

2)Filter out詞組本意是濾掉,。這個單詞可能有同學會不熟悉,但是如果對本句結構理解清楚,看到from這個介詞,加之對前文大意的理解,我們可以猜出這個詞的意思,或者理解為"區分"等也不影響全句的理解。以避免我們有的同學看到第一個單詞不認識立馬生出的膽怯情緒,影響下文判斷。

【參考譯文】把差異性和獨特性從共性中過濾出來也許能讓我們理解復雜的文化行為是如何產生的,是什么從進化或認知領域指導著它。

49. 【解析】本句結構比較明朗,關鍵是句子前部分單獨很難理解,需要結合前文。這也恰恰說明了考研英語中的翻譯首先是閱讀理解的一部分,不是單獨的翻譯而已。

1)這里的the second與上文的"The most famous of these efforts was initiated by Noam Chomsky,",所里這里應該翻譯成"第二種理論"所以這句話需要根據上下文和邏輯解釋清楚。而不能單純的翻譯成第二。。。

2)對于括號內部的處理,我們可以直接放在括號中即可。

【參考譯文】約書亞格林伯格為尋找語言的共性而付出努力提出了第二種理論。他采用了一個更實用的共性理論,做法是辨認出眾多語言的共有特征(尤其是按照詞序排列),這些特征被認為代表了由認知局限導致的偏差。

50. 【解析】這句話的結構比較簡單,復雜的是其中大量的術語和不熟悉的詞匯。對于這些詞匯我們根據直譯即可。

本句結構:Chomsky's grammar should show…, whereas Greenbergian….

1)That引導的定語從句修飾patterns

2)這里的"grammar"是指是上文的生成語法,所以這里可以把生成語法翻譯出來。

3)co-dependencies 這個詞需要根據上下詞義加之詞根詞綴來猜測出詞義,因為下文指出是兩者關系,所以可以翻譯為"共存性"。

【參考譯文】喬姆斯基生成語法應該表明語言變化的模式,這些模式獨立于族譜或貫穿其中的路徑,然而格林伯格的共性理論預測詞序關系的特殊類別之間(而不是其他)有著強烈的共存性。

Section III Writing

51.小作文

【參考范文】

Dear international students,

I am the chairman of the Students' Union. I've just received the emails from you and got the news that you will come to our university. Firstly, I'd like to show our warm welcome. On behalf of our university and all the students here, I really look forward to your coming.

In order to make all of you feel at home, here are some conductive suggestions. Firstly, you'd better take some warm clothes with you because it is winter in China now and it is very cold in Beijing. Secondly, I advise you to prepare some relevant knowledge about Chinese culture for better understanding in class.

I really hope you'll find these proposals useful. And I'm looking forward to your coming!

Yours sincerely,

Li Ming

52.大作文

【參考范文】

As can be clearly seen from the vivid picture, in front of a toppled bottel of which most water in it has flowed out, a man says "there is none left , how unlucky I am" looking rather upset, while another man quickly picked this bottle up, saying "I'm such a lucky dog, there is still some left". How vivid the cartoon it is! The two men show quite different perspectives toward the same situation.

The implication conveyed in this cartoon is that different perspectives we take to exam problems we confront lead to different attitutes or answers to these problems. In the first place, we'll find the problem is very difficult to handle from the pessimistic perspective. However, if we change our way of observing problems, we may find that we can make some remedial work even to turn something bad into good. In this way, we can find solutions for any difficulties. Every coin has two sides. So why not change an angel to observe the problem we encounter?

Whenever we face with the situation like the cartoon,what we should do is to observe it positively, especially when we are experiencing and encountering setbacks, only if we have the optimistic attitude, can we be bound to live a life of happiness

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