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2014年考研英語一真題原文及答案解析完整版

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2014年考研英語一真題原文及答案解析完整版

Section I Use of Language

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(S) for each numbered blank and mark A, B ,C or D on ANSWER SHEET. (10 Points)

As many people hit middle age, they often start to notice that their memory and mental clarity are not what they used to be. We suddenly can't remember 1 we put the keys just a moment ago, or an old acquaintance's name, or the name of an old band we used to love. As the brain 2 , we refer to these occurrences as "senior moments." 3 seemingly innocent, this loss of mental focus can potentially have a(an) 4 impact on our professional, social, and personal 5 .

Neuroscientists, experts who study the nervous system, are increasingly showing that there's actually a lot that can be done. It 6 out that the brain needs exercise in much the same way our muscles do, and the right mental 7 can significantly improve our basic cognitive 8 . Thinking is essentially a 9 of making connections in the brain. To a certain extent, our ability to 10 in making the connections that drive intelligence is inherited. 11 , because these connections are made through effort and practice, scientists believe that intelligence can expand and fluctuate 12 mental effort.

Now, a new Web-based company has taken it a step 13 and developed the first "brain training program" designed to actually help people improve and regain their mental 14 .

The Web-based program 15 you to systematically improve your memory and attention skills. The program keeps 16 of your progress and provides detailed feedback 17 your performance and improvement. Most importantly, it 18 modifies and enhances the games you play to 19 on the strengths you are developing--much like a(n) 20 exercise routine requires you to increase resistance and vary your muscle use.

1.[A]where [B]when [C]that [D]why

2.[A]improves [B]fades [C]recovers [D]collapses

3.[A]If [B]Unless [C]Once [D]While

4.[A]uneven [B]limited [C]damaging [D]obscure

5.[A]wellbeing [B]environment [C]relationship [D]outlook

6.[A]turns [B]finds [C]points [D]figures

7.[A]roundabouts [B]responses [C]workouts [D]associations

8.[A]genre [B]functions [C]circumstances [D]criterion

9.[A]channel [B]condition [C]sequence [D]process

10.[A]persist [B]believe [C]excel [D]feature

11.[A]Therefore [B]Moreover [C]Otherwise [D]However

12.[A]according to [B]regardless of [C]apart from [D]instead of

13.[A]back [B]further [C]aside [D]around

14.[A]sharpness [B]stability [C]framework [D]flexibility

15.[A]forces [B]reminds [C]hurries [D]allows

16.[A]hold [B]track [C]order [D]pace

17.[A] to [B]with [C]for [D]on

18.[A]irregularly [B]habitually [C]constantly [D]unusually

19.[A]carry [B]put [C]build [D]take

20.[A]risky [B]effective [C]idle [D]familiar

答案:1-5 ABDCA

6-10 ACBDC

11-15 DABAD

16-20 BDCCB

1. [標準答案] [A]

[考點分析] 上下文語義和連詞辨析

[選項分析] 本題考查連詞。根據上下文意思,首先可以排除[B][C][D]。這句話中 where 引導一個狀語語從句,主要是說記不清把鑰匙放在哪里了。

2. [標準答案] [B]

[考點分析] 上下文語義和動詞辨析

[選項分析] As the brain 2 we refer to these occurrences as "senior moments這句話的意思是“由于大腦 2 我們稱這些現象為“瞬間性老年癡呆”,由此可以排除[A] 和 [C]。[D]collapse意為:使倒塌,使崩潰,不符合題意。fades考察熟詞僻意,通常意思為褪色,逝去。還有衰老的意思,這里就考察是衰老的意思。從前文可以看出,文章講的是隨著年齡增長,大腦衰老。所以選[B]

3. [標準答案] [D]

[考點分析] 邏輯銜接題

[選項分析] [A] if 表示假設“如果”。[B] Unless “除非,如果不”。[C]Once “一旦”。[D]While,“雖然,然而”表轉折。這句話的意思是雖然表面上看起來沒什么,但是危害很大,前后位轉折關系,所以選D。

4. [標準答案] [C]

[考點分析] 上下文語義和詞匯辨析

[選項分析] 這四個選項均為形容詞,[A] 表示“不均勻”, [B] 表示“有限的”, [C] 表示“有破壞性的,損壞的”, [D] 表示“模糊的,晦澀的”。這句話意思是這種精神能量的缺失會給我們帶來……的影響。根據上下文的意思,可以排除 [A] 和 [D]。而“有限的影響”顯然不足以表達危害的嚴重性,故可以排除[B] 選項。[C] “帶來有害的影響”最符合作者意圖。

5. [標準答案] [A]

[考點分析] 上下文語義和名詞辨析

[選項分析] 本句話含義是這種精神能量的缺失會給我們的職業、社交還有個人……帶來有害的影響。[A] wellbeing “幸福”。[B]environment “環境”。[C] relationship “關系”。[D] outlook “展望”。and連接若干名詞,這些名詞應該為同一類,職業、社交都是和個人相關,排除[B] 和[D],[C] personal relationship就是social的意思,不能重復,選擇[A],個人幸福。

6. [標準答案] [A]

[考點分析] 固定搭配

[選項分析] [A] it turns out that “原來,其實” 。[B]it finds out that“本文發現”。[C] it points out that“指出”。[D] it figures out that“本文發現”。It代表神經科學,這句話的意思是越來越多的精神學家們都表示,大腦其實跟肌肉一樣需要練習運動。這里給出的是神經科學的結論,因此選擇it turns out that

7. [標準答案] [C]

[考點分析] 上下文語義和名詞辨析

[選項分析] 這四個選項均為名詞。[A] roundabouts迂回路線。[B]responses回應。[C]workouts鍛煉,練習。[D]associations協會。[C]workouts鍛煉,練習與前文出現的exercise都有“鍛煉,練習”的意思,近義詞復現,所以選[C]

8. [標準答案] [B]

[考點分析] 上下文語義和名詞辨析

[選項分析] 這四個選項均為名詞。[A]genre類型,種類。[B]functions功能。[C]circumstances情況,環境。[D]criterion批評判斷的標準、準則。這句話的意思是正確的智力運動能極大地提高我們最基本的認知功能,根據語義,選擇[B]functions功能。

9. [標準答案] [D]

[考點分析] 上下文語義和名詞辨析

[選項分析] 這四個選項均為名詞。[A] channel通道,頻道。[B]condition條件。[C]sequence順序,序列。[D]process過程,步驟。根據常識,思考是一個過程,并且通過腦神經相互接觸來完成,其他選項表示渠道、序列、條件,均不符合常識。因此正確答案是表示過程的[D]選項。這句話的意思是思考是大腦神經連接必要的過程。

10. [標準答案] [D]

[考點分析] 上下文語義和動詞辨析

[選項分析] 這四個選項均為動詞。[A] persist堅持。[B] believe相信。[C] excel超過。[D] feature特色。本句句意,在某種程度來講,我們在進行神經連接(直接影響人的聰明程度)方面的特殊能力是與生俱來的。excel 有超過擅長的意思,表示在某個方面出眾,放在此處符合題意,因此正確答案為[B]。

11. [標準答案] [D]

[考點分析] 邏輯銜接題

[選項分析] 本題需要的是一個副詞,而且位于句首,因此考察的是句關系。通過前后句意義來定答案,前一句強調的是智力是與生俱來的(inherited),而后一句則認為是可以通過腦力活動(mental effort)會有所波動,兩句意義明顯相反,故正確答案為[D] However。

12. [標準答案] [A]

[考點分析] 上下文語義和短語辨析

[選項分析] 本題并不難,可以理解為:智力可以……腦力活動得到提升或出現波動。 [B]regardless of “不管,不顧”不合邏輯。[C]apart from“除……之外”也不合適。[D]instead of “代替”明顯不符。故[A]為正確答案。

13. [標準答案] [B]

[考點分析] 上下文語義和固定搭配

[選項分析] 本題考察的是固定搭配:take a step ……,能搭配只有A和C,分別指“采取進一步措施”和“讓到一邊去”,無論從邏輯上還是從句意上都是A符合。

14. [標準答案] [A]

[考點分析] 上下文語義和詞匯辨析

[選項分析] 本題考察的是動賓搭配:improve and regain sb’s mental ……,再根據前文一直在講如何提高“智力”,因此可以排除A(模式)和B(穩定性),C(靈活性)和D(鋒利性,尖銳性)容易混淆,C有一定的干擾性,但雙比之下,D更契合前文,故選D。

15. [標準答案] [D]

[考點分析] 上下文語義和詞匯辨析

[選項分析] 空格所在句的意思是說這個網絡課程可以_____系統地改善你的記憶力和注意力。而且此處需要填入的動詞需要與to進行搭配。根據搭配關系直接排除A,B。本文的主題介紹的是使人聰明的腦力鍛煉法,感情色彩是中性的,此處的D選項force排除,所以最恰當的是D。

16. [標準答案] [B]

[考點分析] 上下文語義和固定搭配

[選項分析] 空格所在句的意思是說這個培訓課程還可以_____學習進度,并且給予詳盡的信息反饋。根據語境,空格缺少的詞匯意義為跟蹤學習進度,分析四個選項,直接排除A hold, C order; 辨析B,D兩個選項,與D選項的pace搭配的介詞應該為with,即,keep pace with,所以排除,B選項為正確答案,keep track of 意思為跟蹤。

17. [標準答案] [C]

[考點分析] 上下文語義和介詞

[選項分析] 本題考查介詞,根據空格前后語境,空格所缺少的介詞意義為關于你的表現作出詳細的反饋,四個選項中只有D有關于的意思。

18. [標準答案] [C]

[考點分析] 上下文語義和詞匯辨析

[選項分析] 空格所在句的意思是說更加重要的是,它會_____調整并升級有關訓練游戲。通過前后句的語境,所用詞匯均為褒義詞,所以,從感情色彩方面可以排除A,B習慣性的主語應該為人,直接排除。B經常的,D異乎尋常的代入,發現C比較符合題意。

19. [標準答案] [C]

[考點分析] 上下文語義和詞匯辨析

[選項分析] 空格所在句的意思是說它會經常調整并升級有關訓練游戲,以促進腦力的不斷____。本題所缺少的動詞需要與介詞on 搭配,A put on 穿上,增加;B carry on 執行;C build on 在……基礎上增加,構建;D take on 呈現;代入空格發現只有C適合,A,B,D都不與空格后面的development 相搭配。

20. [標準答案] [C]

[考點分析] 上下文語義和詞匯辨析

[選項分析] 本題涉及的是一個含不定式作后定的句子,所缺詞匯為形容詞修飾exercise routine,根據前后情感一致的邏輯,通過后面的不定式中的關鍵詞increase寺和vary your muscle use等信息反推所需詞匯為正向詞匯,直接排除A和B,D是中性,只有C(有效的)符合邏輯,故為正確答案。

Section II Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions: Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C, D. Mark your choice on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Text 1

In order to “change lives for the better” and reduce “dependency,” George Orbome, Chancellor of the Exchequer, introduced the “upfront work search” scheme. Only if the jobless arrive at the jobcentre with a CV register for online job search, and start looking for work will they be eligible for benefit-and then they should report weekly rather than fortnightly. What could be more reasonable?

More apparent reasonableness followed. There will now be a seven-day wait for the jobseeker’s allowance. “Those first few days should be spent looking for work, not looking to sign on.” he claimed. “We’re doing these things because we know they help people say off benefits and help those on benefits get into work faster” Help? Really? On first hearing, this was the socially concerned chancellor, trying to change lives for the better, complete with “reforms” to an obviously indulgent system that demands too little effort from the newly unemployed to find work, and subsides laziness. What motivated him, we were to understand, was his zeal for “fundamental fairness”-protecting the taxpayer, controlling spending and ensuring that only the most deserving claimants received their benefits.

Losing a job is hurting: you don’t skip down to the jobcentre with a song in your heart, delighted at the prospect of doubling your income from the generous state. It is financially terrifying, psychologically embarrassing and you know that support is minimal and extraordinarily hard to get. You are now not wanted; you support is minimal and extraordinarily hard to get. You are now not wanted; you are now excluded from the work environment that offers purpose and structure in your life. Worse, the crucial income to feed yourself and your family and pay the bills has disappeared. Ask anyone newly unemployed what they want and the answer is always: a job.

But in Osborneland, your first instinct is to fall into dependency —permanent dependency if you can get it — supported by a state only too ready to indulge your falsehood. It is as though 20 years of ever-tougher reforms of the job search and benefit administration system never happened. The principle of British welfare is no longer that you can insure yourself against the risk of unemployment and receive unconditional payments if the disaster happens. Even the very phrase “jobseeker’s allowance” — invented in 1996 — is about redefining the unemployed as a “jobseeker” who had no mandatory right to a benefit he or she has earned through making national insurance contributions.Instead, the claimant receives a time-limited “allowance,” conditional on actively seeking a job; no entitlement and no insurance, at ?71.70 a week, one of the least generous in the EU.

真題解析:文章概括:政府大臣Grorge Osbome提出了一個項目幫助失業的人找工作。

21.George Osborne’s scheme was intended to

[A]provide the unemployed with easier access to benefits.

[B]encourage jobseekers’ active engagement in job seeking.

[C]motivate the unemployed to report voluntarily.

[D]guarantee jobseekers’ legitimate right to benefits.

答案:B 細節題。本道題的關鍵是intended to問的是目的,所以我們也應該去尋找體現目的性的詞匯,所以在首段首句看到了in order to ,則后面的內容即為本題答案,結合后面找工作的內容則選擇B選項。

22.The phrase “to sign on”(Line 3,Para.2) most probably means

[A]to check on the availability of jobs at the jobcentre.

[B]to accept the government’s restrictions on the allowance.

[C]to register for an allowance from the government.

[D]to attend a governmental job-training program.

答案: C 詞義句意題。先根據題干定位到第二段第三行,to sign on前面有一個很明顯的not,則我們可以推知,這一定是前面的反義,我們只要讀懂前面半部分就可以了,前面說應該spend looking for work,正好和A選項相符,所以我們只要選擇一個相反的選項即可,則選擇C選項。

23.What promoted the chancellor to develop his scheme?

[A]A desire to secure a better life for all.

[B]An eagerness to protect the unemployed.

[C]An urge to be generous to the claimants.

[D]A passion to ensure fairness for taxpayers.

答案:A 細節題。本道題的關鍵是題目中的prompted和chancellor,根據chancellor能定位到二段第五行,再向下尋找則可發現motivate和prompt是對應的,所以看本句即可發現和A選項是對應的。

24.According to Paragraph 3, being unemployed makes one one feel

[A]uneasy.

[B]enraged.

[C]insulted.

[D]guilty.

答案: A 細節題。本道題根據unemployed回到文中定位在第三段的最后一句,沒有感覺相關內容,所以需要向前找答案,再根據本段第一句話中的losing a job即可判定答案在第二句,因此選擇A選項。另我們會發現BCD三個選項趨于強烈和負面,所以,我們選擇A選項。

25.To which of the following would the author most probably agree?

[A]The British welfare system indulges jobseekers’ laziness.

[B]Osborne’s reforms will reduce the risk of unemployment.

[C]The jobseekers’ allowance has met their actual needs.

[D]Unemployment benefits should not be made conditional.

答案:B 細節題。本題題根據選項定位。A選項根據大寫字母The British welfare system定位到最后一段的第三句,原文是“no longer”,選項與原文反向干擾。B選項根據Osborne’s reforms

定位到第一段第二句,可以得出該項目可減少失業危險,所以B為正確答案。C選項根據題干“the jobseekers’ allowance”定位到最后一段倒數第二句,該句提到“no fundamental right”,恰與C選項表意相反,所以C是反向干擾。D選項根據題干“conditional”定位到最后一段最后一句,其中只提到“conditional on actively seeking a job…”,并沒有要說以后應該怎樣,所以屬于無中生有。

Text 2

All around the world, lawyers generate more hostility than the members of any other profession---with the possible exception of journalism. But there are few places where clients have more grounds for complaint than America.

During the decade before the economic crisis, spending on legal services in America grew twice as fast as inflation. The best lawyers made skyscrapers-full of money, tempting ever more students to pile into law schools. But most law graduates never get a big-firm job. Many of them instead become the kind of nuisance-lawsuit filer that makes the tort system a costly nightmare.

There are many reasons for this. One is the excessive costs of a legal education. There is just one path for a lawyer in most American states: a four-year undergraduate degree at one of 200 law schools authorized by the American Bar Association and an expensive preparation for the bar exam. This leaves today’s average law-school graduate with $100,000 of debt on top of undergraduate debts. Law-school debt means that they have to work fearsomely hard.

Reforming the system would help both lawyers and their customers. Sensible ideas have been around for a long time, but the state-level bodies that govern the profession have been too conservative to implement them. One idea is to allow people to study law as an undergraduate degree. Another is to let students sit for the bar after only two years of law school. If the bar exam is truly a stern enough test for a would-be lawyer, those who can sit it earlier should be allowed to do so.Students who do not need the extra training could cut their debt mountain by a third.The other reason why costs are so high is the restrictive guild-like ownership structure of the business. Except in the District of Columbia, non-lawyers may not own any share of a law firm. This keeps fees high and innovation slow. There is pressure for change from within the profession, but opponents of change among the regulators insist that keeping outsiders out of a law firm isolates lawyers from the pressure to make money rather than serve clients ethically.

In fact,allowing non-lawyers to own shares in law firms would reduce costs and improve services to customers, by encouraging law firms to use technology and to employ professional managers to focus on improving firms’ efficiency. After all, other countries, such as Australia and Britain, have started liberalizing their legal professions. America should follow.

26.a lot of students take up law as their profession due to

[A]the growing demand from clients.

[B]the increasing pressure of inflation.

[C]the prospect of working in big firms.

[D]the attraction of financial rewards.

答案:D。該題是因果細節題,考察細節。首先,根據段落定位原則模糊定位,定位到前幾段。其次,再精確定位,題干中有關鍵詞“students”“law”“profession”,回到原文尋找相關信息。第一段未發現相關信息,然后到第二段看到“The best lawyers made skyscrapers-full of money, tempting ever more students to pile into law schools.”與題干有重合之處,選項D是該句的同義替換。A、B、C三個選項根據原文個別詞匯“clients”“inflation”“big-firm”等進行干擾。注意,第一段的But是個假轉折詞,并非答案處。

27.Which of the following adds to the costs of legal education in most American states?

[A]Higher tuition fees for undergraduate studies.

[B]Admissions approval from the bar association.

[C]Pursuing a bachelor’s degree in another major.

[D]Receiving training by professional associations.

答案:C。該題是細節題,考察細節。首先根據段落定位原則定位到第三段。其次,根據題干關鍵詞“the costs of legal education”精確定位到第三段第二句話“One is the excessive costs of a legal education.”問題是“which of the following adds to the costs of legal education”,因此定位句的下一句就是答案,即“There is just one path for a lawyer in most American states: a four-year undergraduate degree in some unrelated subject, then a three-year law degree at one of 200 law schools accredited by the American Bar Association and an expensive preparation for the bar exam.”分析選項可知,選項C恰當概況了該句子的涵義。A選項利用三段末尾的“This leaves today’s average law-school graduate with $100,000 of debt on top of undergraduate debts.”進行干擾。B選項無中生有。D選項根據四段最后一句出現的“training”個別詞匯進行干擾。

28.Hindrance to the reform of the legal system originates from

[A]lawyers’ and clients’ strong resistance.

[B]the rigid bodies governing the profession.

[C]the stem exam for would-be lawyers.

[D]non-professionals’ sharp criticism.

答案:B。該題是原因細節題,問來源。首先段落定位原則定位到第四段。其次,根據題干關鍵詞“the reform of the legal system”定位到第二句“Sensible ideas have been around for a long time, but the state-level bodies that govern the profession have been too conservative to implement them.”選項B即為該句的同義替換。

29.The guild-like ownership structure is considered “restrictive” partly because it

[A]bans outsiders’ involvement in the profession.

[B]keeps lawyers from holding law-firm shares.

[C]aggravates the ethical situation in the trade.

[D]prevents lawyers from gaining due profits.

答案:A。該題為因果細節題,問原因。根據段落定位原則定位至倒數第二段。其次,題干中出現“the guild-like ownership structure”,精確定位到第二句“Except in the District of Columbia, non-lawyers may not own any share of a law firm. This keeps fees high and innovation slow.”此外,在該段最后一句提到“…keeping outsiders out of a law firm isolates lawyers from the pressure to make money rather than serve clients ethically.”從而可以得出答案選A。

30.In this text, the author mainly discusses

[A]flawed ownership of America’s law firms and its causes.

[B]the factors that help make a successful lawyer in America.

[C]a problem in America’s legal profession and solutions to it.

[D]the role of undergraduate studies in America’s legal education.

答案:C。該題為文章主旨題,考察文章中心。該篇文章屬于問題解決型文章,前5段均在說美國法律職業存在的問題,最后一段提出了解決措施“allowing non-lawyers to own shares in law firms would reduce costs and improve services to customers, by encouraging law firms to use technology and to employ professional managers to focus on improving firms’ efficiency.”。因此,該篇屬于問題解決型文章,選C。其他幾個選項均為文中的個別細節,以偏概全。

Text 3

The US$3-million Fundamental physics prize is indeed an interesting experiment, as Alexander Polyakov said when he accepted this year’s award in March. And it is far from the only one of its type. As a News Feature article in Nature discusses, a string of lucrative awards for researchers have joined the Nobel Prizes in recent years. Many, like the Fundamental Physics Prize, are funded from the telephone-number-sized bank accounts of Internet entrepreneurs. These benefactors have succeeded in their chosen fields, they say, and they want to use their wealth to draw attention to those who have succeeded in science.

What’s not to like? Quite a lot, according to a handful of scientists quoted in the News Feature. You cannot buy class, as the old saying goes, and these upstart entrepreneurs cannot buy their prizes the prestige of the Nobels, The new awards are an exercise in self-promotion for those behind them, say scientists. They could distort the achievement-based system of peer-review-led research. They could cement the status quo of peer-reviewed research. They do not fund peer-reviewed research. They perpetuate the myth of the lone genius.

The goals of the prize-givers seem as scattered as the criticism.Some want to shock, others to draw people into science, or to better reward those who have made their careers in research.

As Nature has pointed out before, there are some legitimate concerns about how science prizes—both new and old—are distributed. The Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences, launched this year, takes an unrepresentative view of what the life sciences include.But the Nobel Foundation’s limit of three recipients per prize, each of whom must still be living, has long been outgrown by the collaborative nature of modern research—as will be demonstrated by the inevitable row over who is ignored when it comes to acknowledging the discovery of the Higgs boson. The Nobels were, of course,themselves set up by a very rich individual who had decided what he wanted to do with his own money. Time, rather than intention, has given them legitimacy.

As much as some scientists may complain about the new awards, two things seem clear. First, most researchers would accept such a prize if they were offered one. Second, it is surely a good thing that the money and attention come to science rather than go elsewhere, It is fair to criticize and question the mechanism—that is the culture of research, after all—but it is the prize-givers’ money to do with as they please. It is wise to take such gifts with gratitude and grace.

真題解析:

文章主題及背景知識:此篇閱讀的主題內容為“基礎物理學獎”,如果對于這一背景信息有所了解,這篇文章便可輕松看懂,做題更是十拿九穩!與2013年相比,2014考研閱讀文章同樣注重時效性,Text3便是反應了2013年3月份的一次實時事件:基礎物理學基金會于3月20日晚在瑞士日內瓦揭曉了2013年基礎物理學獎!所以2015考研的同學們一定要多多關注社會熱點話題,拓展視野,豐富自己的文化背景知識,這樣才能取得事半功倍的效果!

文章講到的是關于和諾貝爾獎一樣的獎金豐厚的獎項出現,這些獎項就是由一些網絡的公司或者是一些新貴們他們得出這樣大量的錢,當然會遭出一些批評,這些獎項還是沒法和諾貝爾獎相比的,階級是沒法改變的,名望是沒法購買的。當然這一系列的東西,在前三段當中談到之后,到了最后一段,作者表明他的觀點,縱然這些對科學家的獎勵在獎項上存在著一些瑕疵,存在著一些不合理的地方。但是對于科學家來說,有人給你錢支持你的研究,終歸是好的。也就是說從31到35題基本上沒有難題,也沒有可以去爭議的,也是既所得的文章。

31.The Fundamental Physical Prize is seen as

[A]a symbol of the entrepreneurs’s wealth.

[B]a possible replacement of the Nobel Prize.

[C]an example of bankers’ investment.

[D]a handsome reward for researchers.

答案:A為細節題。根據題干中的Fundamental Physics Prize可以定位到第一段,但除此之外就沒有其他細節提示信息了,所以我們只能根據幾個選項去定位,分別根據選項中的entrepreneurs、Nobel Prize、investment、reward去定位,在第一段末句找到了與A選項相一致的句子,則判定A選項正確。

32.The phrase “to sign on”(Line 3,Para.2) most probably means

[A]the profit-oriented scientists.

[B]the founders of the new award.

[C]the achievement-based system.

[D]peer-review-led research.

答案:B 為細節題。根據題干中的critics定位到第三段,可知第二段沒有出題,從第三段第二句可以得出本道題的正確選項,who have made their careers in research即為B選項中的The founders。

33.What promoted the chancellor to develop his scheme?

[A]controversies over the recipients’ status.

[B]the joint effort of modern researchers.

[C]legitimate concerns over the new prize.

[D]the demonstration of research findings.

答案: D 為細節題。本道題如果從題干中看更像是例證題,但題目中說道the case involves即問例子本身,所以為一道細節題。我們在第四段倒數第三句中找到了Higgs boson,定位到本句可以得知nature of modern research---as well as demonstrated by……即為本道題正確答案。

34.According to Paragraph 3, being unemployed makes one one feel

[A]Their endurance has done justice to them.

[B]Their legitimacy has long been in dispute.

[C]They are the most representative honor.

[D]History has never cast doubt on them.

答案: A 為判斷題。此類題型是考試中的一個難點,在題干中提示信息非常少,所以我們需要根據每個選項分別定位。A選項的durance定位到本段最后一句time。B選項根據legitimacy定位到第一句。C選項沒有提到。D選項從最后一段可以驗證確實是收到了質疑,B選項和原文不符,可以得知答案為A。

35.To which of the following would the author most probably agree?

[A]acceptable despite the criticism.

[B]harmful to the culture of research.

[C]subject to undesirable changes.

[D]unworthy of public attention.

答案: A 為主旨題。本題屬于作者觀點,出在最后一段則說明更多體現了文章的主旨,因為還有一個段落對應,則我們可以在最后一段找答案,根據題干中的award我們可以得知全文的最后一句明確體現了作者的觀點,故選A。

Text 4

“The Heart of the Matter,” the just-released report by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, deserves praise for affirming the importance of the humanities and social sciences to the prosperity and security of liberal democracy in America. Regrettably, however, the report's failure to address the true nature of the crisis facing liberal education may cause more harm than good.

In 2010, leading congressional Democrats and Republicans sent letters to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences asking that it identify actions that could be taken by "federal, state and local governments, universities, foundations, educators, individual benefactors and others" to "maintain national excellence in humanities and social scientific scholarship and education."

In response, the American Academy formed the Commission on the Humanities and Social Sciences, with Duke University President Richard Brodhead and retired Exelon CEO John Rowe as co-chairmen. Among the commission's 51 members are top-tier-university presidents, scholars, lawyers, judges, and business executives, as well as prominent figures from diplomacy, filmmaking, music and journalism.

The goals identified in the report are generally admirable. Because representative government presupposes an informed citizenry, the report supports full literacy; stresses the study of history and government, particularly American history and American government; and encourages the use of new digital technologies.

To encourage innovation and competition, the report calls for increased investment in research, the crafting of coherent curricula that improve students' ability to solve problems and communicate effectively in the 21st century, increased funding for teachers and the encouragement of scholars to bring their learning to bear on the great challenges of the day. The report also advocates greater study of foreign languages, international affairs and the expansion of study abroad programs.

One of the more novel ideas in the report is the creation of a "Culture Corps" in cities and town across America to "transmit humanistic and social scientific expertise from one generation to the next."

Unfortunately, despite 2? years in the making, "The Heart of the Matter" never gets to the heart of the matter: the illiberal nature of liberal education at our leading colleges and universities.

The commission ignores that for several decades America's colleges and universities have produced graduates who don't know the content and character of liberal education and are thus deprived of its benefits. Sadly, the spirit of inquiry once at home on campus has been replaced by the use of the humanities and social sciences as vehicles for disseminating "progressive," or left-liberal propaganda.

Today, professors routinely treat the progressive interpretation of history and progressive public policy as the proper subject of study while portraying conservative or classical liberal ideas—such as free markets, self-reliance and a distrust of central planning—as falling outside the boundaries of routine, and sometimes legitimate, intellectual investigation.

The AAAS displays great enthusiasm for liberal education. Yet its report may well set back reform by obscuring the depth and breadth of the challenge that congress asked it to illuminate.

36. According to Paragraph 1, what is the author’s attitude toward the AAAS’s report?

[A] Critical

[B] Appreciative

[C] Contemptuous

[D] Tolerant

本篇文章選自華爾街日報。主要講的是非自由教育以及”問題核心”這個報告。

答案解析:

36.選A,該題是細節態度題。并非考察全文的態度,也就是說要細節定位。根據題干定位原則,定位第一段AAAS出現之處,并且一定要找到表示評價的部分。該題迷惑性很強,因為文章在AAAS后面就又”praise”所以容易誤導大家選擇答案B “appreciative(欣賞的)”,但是我們應該看到有however,我們知道如果第一段出現轉折,那此轉折一定跟主旨有關。同時各個題都與主旨相關,所以這道題應該于主旨相關,后文中的“may cause more harm than good.”讓我們知道它的還多余利,所以答案選擇A,批判性的。

37. Influential figures in the Congress required that the AAAS report on how to

[A] retain people’s interest in liberal education

[B] define the government’s role in education

[C] keep a leading position in liberal education

[D] safeguard individuals rights to education

37,選C,細節題。根據自然段定位原則,36題在第一段出題,38題在第三段出題,那37題在第二段出題的可能性就很大。同時題干定位”Influential figures in the Congress”與“leading congressional Democrats and Republicans”同義替換。定位的答案是asking that it identify actions that could be taken by "federal, state and ….., individual benefactors and others" to "asking that it identify actions that could be taken by "federal, state and local governments, universities, foundations, educators, individual benefactors and others" to "maintain national excellence in humanities and social scientific scholarship and education. “In humanities and social scientific scholarship and education. “也就是說答案重點在maintain national excellence 剛好與選項C 中的leading position 進行同義替換。ABD與文章不符合。

38. According to Paragraph 3, the report suggests

[A] an exclusive study of American history

[B] a greater emphasis on theoretical subjects

[C] the application of emerging technologies

[D] funding for the study of foreign languages

38,選C,推理題。Suggest 是推理題的標志。先化選項關鍵詞,發現選項A是講American history選項B; 是講theoretical subjects;選項C]emerging technologies;選項Dfunding foreign languages。返回原文定位的時候,A 選項中的“exclusive 排外”并沒有在“stresses the study of history and government, particularly American history and American government;”這句話中體現。B選項中的理論學科沒有定位點。D選項與原文“increased funding for teachers”以及“greater study of foreign languages,”不符。屬于張冠李戴。“encourages the use of new digital technologies.”與選項C 同義替換。

39. The author implies in Paragraph S that professors are

[A] supportive of free markets

[B] cautious about intellectual investigation

[C] conservative about public policy

[D] biased against classical liberal ideas

39題選B,屬于推理題。Implies是推理題的標志。同時根據提題干定位第五段,找professor. “professors routinely treat the progressive interpretation of history and progressive public policy as the proper subject of study while portraying conservative or classical liberal ideas—such as free markets, self-reliance —as falling outside the boundaries of routine, and sometimes legitimate, intellectual investigation.”A 選項中的free markets前面的修飾詞語是conservative or liberal ideas 沒有體現A 選項中的supportive。C選項中的conservative 與文中progressive public policy 不符合。D選項中biased 沒有體現,故排除。所以選B。

40. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?

[A] Ways to Grasp “The Heart of the Matter”

[B] Illiberal Education and “The Heart of the Matter”

[C] The AAAS’s Contribution to Liberal Education

[D] Progressive Policy vs. Liberal Education

40.題選擇B。主旨大意題。先看其他題題干,我們鎖定關鍵詞是report ,而report 就是“the heart of the matter “ 故排除C和D.而我們看A 發現文章并沒有講如何抓住“問題核心”的各個方法。排除A,選擇B

Part B

Directions:

The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize into a coherent text by choosing from the list A-G and filling them into the numbered boxes .Paragraphs A and E have been correctly placed. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.(10 points)

[A] Some archaeological sites have always been easily observable—for example, the Parthenon in Athens, Greece; the pyramids of Giza in Egypt; and the megaliths of Stonehenge in southern England. But these sites are exceptions to the norm .Most archaeological sites have been located by means of careful searching, while many others have been discovered by accident. Olduvai Gorge, fell into its deep valley in 1911.Thousands of Aztec artifacts came to light during the digging of the Mexico City subway in the 1970s.

[B] In another case, American archaeologists Rene million and George Cowgill spent years systematically mapping the entire city of Teotihuacan in the valley of Mexico near what is now Mexico City .at its peak around AD 600, this city was one of the largest human settlements in the word. The researchers mapped not only the city’s vast and ornate ceremonial areas, but also hundreds of simpler apartment complexes where common people lived.

[C] How do archaeologists know where to find what they are looking for when there is nothing visible on the surface of the ground? Typically, they survey and sample (make test excavations on) large areas of terrain to determine where excavation will yield useful information. Surveys and test samples have also become important for understanding the larger landscapes that contain archaeological sites.

[D] Surveys can cover a single large settlement or entire landscapes.in one case, many researchers working around the ancient Maya city of Copán, Honduras, have located hundreds of small rural village and individual dwellings by using aerial photographs and by making surveys on foot. The resulting settlement maps show how the distribution and density of the rural population around the city changed dramatically between AD500 and 850, when Copán collapsed.

[E] To find their sites, archaeologists today rely heavily on systematic survey methods and a variety of high-technology tools and techniques. Airbone technologies, such as different types of radar and photographic equipment carried by airplanes or spacecraft, allow archaeologists to learn about what lies beneath the ground without digging. Aerial surveys locate general areas of interest or larger buried features, such as ancient buildings or fields.

[F] Most archaeological sites, however, are discovered by archaeologists who have set out to look for them. Such searches can take years. British archaeologist Howard Carter knew that the tomb of the Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamum existed from information found in other sites. Carter sifted through rubble in the Valley of the King for seven years before he located the tomb in 1922. In the late 1800s British archaeologist Sir Arthur Eyan combed antique dealers’ stores in Athens, Greece. He was searching for thing engraved seals attributed to the ancient Mycenaean culture that dominated Greece from the 1400s to 1200s BC. Evas’s interpretations of those engravings eventually led them to find the Minoan palace at Knossos on the island of Crete, in 1900.

[G] Ground surveys allow archaeologists to pinpoint the places where digs will be successful. Most ground surveys involve a lot of walking, looking for surface clues such as small fragments of pottery. They often include a certain amounts of digging to test for buried materials at selected points across a landscape. Archaeologists also may locate buried remains by using such technologies as ground radar, magnetic-field recording, and metal detector. Archaeologists commonly use computers to map sites and the landscapes around sites. Two and three-dimensional maps are helpful tools in planning excavations, illustrating how sites look, and presenting the results of archaeological research.

41 --- A --- 42. --- E ---43 --- 44 --- 45

解析:本文選自發表于2003年The International History Project的文章,題目為Archeology.

41. 此題是首段,所以需要找尋綜述性的段落。其中A和E選項是給出的,所以只需從余下選項進行選擇。B選項中有another,所以不會是第一段。E選項中代詞their沒有指代對象。F中有however,也不會是第一段。因此,只留下C和D選項。在C選項最后一句提到survey和test sample也很重要。而在D選項開頭就提到了survey,而且整段都是,由此可看出D是對C的分述。所以C是首段。

42. 此題排在A項之后,所以內容上應該是銜接的。A項主要談論的是大部分考古地點是通過仔細搜尋之后找到的,而其他的很多是被偶然發現的,接著舉了一些例子。接下來在看各段首句的時候,發現F項中提到大部分考古地點是被考古學家們特意尋找發現的,和A提到的偶然發現意思相反,所以F正確。

43. 此題排在E項之后。E選項最后一句提到天空的搜尋,而在G選項的開頭提到地面搜尋,正好形成對應,所以為正確答案。

44. 此時,只留下B和D選項。其中B選項開頭提到了in another case,所以前面一段一定要提到in one case, 而D選項中有in one case.所以,D選項在前。

45. 根據上面的分析,此題只能選B。

Part C

Directions:

Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written on the ANSWER SHEET(10 points)

Music means different things to different people and sometimes even different things to the same person at different moments of his life. It might be poetic, philosophical, sensual, or mathematical, but in any case it must, in my view, have something to do with the soul of the human being. Hence it is metaphysical; but the means of expression is purely and exclusively physical: sound. I believe it is precisely this permanent coexistence of metaphysical message through physical means that is the strength of music.46) It is also the reason why when we try to describe music with words, all we can do is articulate our reactions to it, and not grasp music itself.

Beethoven’s importance in music has been principally defined by the revolutionary nature of his compositions. He freed music from hitherto prevailing conventions of harmony and structure. Sometimes I feel in his late works a will to break all signs of continuity. The music is abrupt and seemingly disconnected, as in the last piano sonata. In musical expression, he did not feel restrained by the weight of convention. 47) By all accounts he was a freethinking person, and a courageous one, and I find courage an essential quality for the understanding, let alone the performance, of his works.

This courageous attitude in fact becomes a requirement for the performers of Beethoven’s music. His compositions demand the performer to show courage, for example in the use of dynamics. 48) Beethoven’s habit of increasing the volume with an extreme intensity and then abruptly following it with a sudden soft passage was only rarely used by composers before him.

Beethoven was a deeply political man in the broadest sense of the word. He was not interested in daily politics, but concerned with questions of moral behavior and the larger questions of right and wrong affecting the entire society.49) Especially significant was his view of freedom, which, for him, was associated with the rights and responsibilities of the individual: he advocated freedom of thought and of personal expression.

Beethoven’s music tends to move from chaos to order as if order were an imperative of human existence. For him, order does not result from forgetting or ignoring the disorders that plague our existence; order is a necessary development, an improvement that may lead to the Greek ideal of spiritual elevation. It is not by chance that the Funeral March is not the last movement of the Eroica Symphony, but the second, so that suffering does not have the last word. 50) One could interpret much of the work of Beethoven by saying that suffering is inevitable, but the courage to fight it renders life worth living.

46. It is also the reason why when we try to describe music with words, all we can do is articulate our reactions to it, and not grasp music itself.

【句型分析】本句主句主干為it is the reason,why引導定語從句,修飾the reason。定語從句的主干是all we can do is articulate our reactions and not grasp music itself,其表語是不定式短語,由于主語中含有do,不定式符號to省略:articulate our reactions and not grasp music itself。our reactions之后to it為其定語,it指代music。定語從句中還包含when引導的時間狀語從句。

【翻譯要點】①本句主干的主句是主系表結構,reason后why引導的定語從句較長,翻譯時可以與主干部分結合,調整表達為:這也就是為什么….。

②定語從句中,when引導時間狀語從句,其中with words做狀語,翻譯時需調整語序到其修飾的to describe之前,可以表達為“當我們嘗試用語言來描述音樂時”。定語從句的主干順譯即可,其中reaction根據語境,可以翻譯為“感受”,其定語to it在表達時前置,it指代還原為“音樂”,則可以翻譯為“所有我們能做的,就是明確表達我們對于音樂的感受”,或者調整表達為“我們只能明確表達我們對于音樂的感受”。and之后,grasp依據語境,需要翻譯為“理解”。

【譯文總結】這也是為什么當我們試圖用語言來描述音樂時,我們只能明確表達我們對于音樂的感受,而不能完全理解音樂本身。

47. By all accounts he was a freethinking person, and a courageous one, and I find courage an essential quality for the understanding, let alone the performance, of his works.

【句型分析】本句為并列句。第一個分句he was a freethinking person, and a courageous one,句首by all accounts為固定搭配,意思是“根據各方面說”。第二個分句的主干為I find courage an essential quality,其中賓語為courage,而an essential quality是賓語補足語。quality后介詞短語for the understanding of his work為其定語,其中還包含一個插入結構let alone the performance。

【翻譯要點】① 第一個分句結構比較簡單,句首固定搭配by all accounts,可以調整表達,翻譯為“據大家所說”。主干順譯即可,其中he指代“貝多芬”,one指代person。這一部分可以翻譯為“貝多芬是個思想自由、充滿勇氣的人”。

②第二個分句,主干為“我發現勇氣是一個關鍵品質”,quality后為其定語for the understanding of his work,其中the understanding of his work意思為“對于其作品的理解”,做詞性轉化后,可以表達為“理解其作品”,這個介詞短語需要調整語序前置于quality,可以翻譯為“理解他作品的關鍵品質”,則第二個分句可以表達為“我發現勇氣,是理解他作品的關鍵品質”。還可以調整表達為“我發現勇氣這一品質,是理解他作品的關鍵”。

③在定語for the understanding of his work中的插入成分,在邏輯上let alone并列the understanding和the performance,二者共用定語of his works,順譯句末即可:更不必說是演出其作品的關鍵品質。

【譯文總結】人們普遍認為,他(貝多芬)是個思想自由、充滿勇氣的人,我發現勇氣這一品質,是理解他作品的關鍵,更不必說是演出其作品的關鍵。

48. Beethoven’s habit of increasing the volume with an extreme intensity and then abruptly following it with a sudden soft passage was only rarely used by composers before him.

【句型分析】本句主干為Beethoven’s habit was used by composers before him。本句的謂語為被動語態,主語habit后介詞短語of increasing the volume with an extreme intensity and then abruptly following it with a sudden soft passage為其定語,是由介詞of與and并列的兩個動名詞短語increasing the volume with an extreme intensity 和then abruptly following it with a sudden soft passage構成。

【翻譯要點】①本句主干較為簡單,但是主語habit后有很長的后置定語:Habit of increasing the volume…,其中“habit”可以詞性轉換為動詞“習慣”,而中文常常先表達次要信息,則這一部分可以翻譯一句話“貝多芬習慣增加…”,置于句首。第一個動名詞短語中,with an extreme intensity為狀語,表達時需調整語序到其修飾的increasing the volume前,根據語境,volume意思為“音量”,則increasing可以翻譯為“增高”。這一部分可以翻譯為“最大限度來逐漸增高音量”。第二個動名詞短語then abruptly following it with a sudden soft passage,狀語with a sudden soft passage需調整到following it前表達,其中passage根據語境,意思為“樂段”。則這一部分可以表達為“然后突然跟上輕柔的樂段”。整合本句主語與其定語,可以翻譯為“貝多芬習慣最大限度來逐漸增高音量,然后突然跟上輕柔的樂段”。

②本句主干意思為“在他之前,作曲家很少使用貝多芬的習慣”。中文語義重心在后,將本部分翻譯在句末即可。由于前句譯文已經提到這種習慣,則這部分可以表達為“在他之前,作曲家很少使用這種習慣”,結合語境還可以表達為“在他之前,作曲家很少使用這種方式”,或者“在他之前,只有極個別作曲家會使用這種方式”。

【譯文總結】貝多芬習慣最大限度來逐漸增高音量,然后突然跟上輕柔的樂段,在他之前,作曲家很少使用這種方式。

49) Especially significant was his view of freedom, which, for him, was associated with the rights and responsibilities of the individual: he advocated freedom of thought and of personal expression.

【句型分析】本句為完全倒裝,主句的主干是his view of freedom was Especially significant。

his view of freedom后為which引導的非限定性定語從句,修飾freedom,關系代詞which在定語從句中作主語。of the individual修飾the rights and responsibilities,冒號后進行解釋說明。

【翻譯要點】

① 本句主干為完全倒裝,但是在翻譯時,順譯即可,其中his指代“貝多芬的”,主干可以表達為:尤為重要的是,他(貝多芬)對于自由的看法….。

② which引導英語從句,修飾freedom,表達時翻譯成另一句話“對于他而言,這種自由是與個人的權利和責任聯系起來的”,其中for him還可以調整表達為“他認為”。

③冒號后進行解釋,可以翻譯為:他倡導思想自由和個人言論自由。

【譯文總結】尤為重要的是貝多芬對于自由的看法,他認為,這種自由是與個人的權利和責任聯系起來的:他倡導思想自由和個人言論自由。

50. One could interpret much of the work of Beethoven by saying that suffering is inevitable, but the courage to fight it renders life worth living.

【句型分析】本句主句主干為One could interpret much of the work of Beethoven,之后by saying that suffering is inevitable, but the courage to fight it renders life worth living為狀語,修飾interpret。其中that引導賓語從句suffering is inevitable, but the courage to fight it renders life worth living,為saying的賓語,賓語從句中it指代suffering。

【翻譯要點】①本句主語one,可以翻譯為“人們”或者“我們”。主干可以翻譯為“我們可以解釋貝多芬的大部分作品”。

②主干之后的狀語,可以翻譯為“通過說痛苦是無法避免的,但是與之相抗爭的勇氣使得生命值得繼續。”

③整合主干,可以表達為“我們可以這樣解釋貝多芬的大部分作品:苦難是不可避免的,但是與痛苦抗爭的勇氣使得生命值得繼續。”

【譯文總結】我們可以這樣解釋貝多芬的大部分作品:苦難是不可避免的,但是與痛苦抗爭的勇氣使得生命值得繼續。

Part C

Directions:

Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written on the ANSWER SHEET(10 points)

Music means different things to different people and sometimes even different things to the same person at different moments of his life. It might be poetic, philosophical, sensual, or mathematical, but in any case it must, in my view, have something to do with the soul of the human being. Hence it is metaphysical; but the means of expression is purely and exclusively physical: sound. I believe it is precisely this permanent coexistence of metaphysical message through physical means that is the strength of music.46) It is also the reason why when we try to describe music with words, all we can do is articulate our reactions to it, and not grasp music itself.

Beethoven’s importance in music has been principally defined by the revolutionary nature of his compositions. He freed music from hitherto prevailing conventions of harmony and structure. Sometimes I feel in his late works a will to break all signs of continuity. The music is abrupt and seemingly disconnected, as in the last piano sonata. In musical expression, he did not feel restrained by the weight of convention. 47) By all accounts he was a freethinking person, and a courageous one, and I find courage an essential quality for the understanding, let alone the performance, of his works.

This courageous attitude in fact becomes a requirement for the performers of Beethoven’s music. His compositions demand the performer to show courage, for example in the use of dynamics. 48) Beethoven’s habit of increasing the volume with an extreme intensity and then abruptly following it with a sudden soft passage was only rarely used by composers before him.

Beethoven was a deeply political man in the broadest sense of the word. He was not interested in daily politics, but concerned with questions of moral behavior and the larger questions of right and wrong affecting the entire society.49) Especially significant was his view of freedom, which, for him, was associated with the rights and responsibilities of the individual: he advocated freedom of thought and of personal expression.

Beethoven’s music tends to move from chaos to order as if order were an imperative of human existence. For him, order does not result from forgetting or ignoring the disorders that plague our existence; order is a necessary development, an improvement that may lead to the Greek ideal of spiritual elevation. It is not by chance that the Funeral March is not the last movement of the Eroica Symphony, but the second, so that suffering does not have the last word. 50) One could interpret much of the work of Beethoven by saying that suffering is inevitable, but the courage to fight it renders life worth living.

46. It is also the reason why when we try to describe music with words, all we can do is articulate our reactions to it, and not grasp music itself.

【句型分析】本句主句主干為it is the reason,why引導定語從句,修飾the reason。定語從句的主干是all we can do is articulate our reactions and not grasp music itself,其表語是不定式短語,由于主語中含有do,不定式符號to省略:articulate our reactions and not grasp music itself。our reactions之后to it為其定語,it指代music。定語從句中還包含when引導的時間狀語從句。

【翻譯要點】①本句主干的主句是主系表結構,reason后why引導的定語從句較長,翻譯時可以與主干部分結合,調整表達為:這也就是為什么….。

②定語從句中,when引導時間狀語從句,其中with words做狀語,翻譯時需調整語序到其修飾的to describe之前,可以表達為“當我們嘗試用語言來描述音樂時”。定語從句的主干順譯即可,其中reaction根據語境,可以翻譯為“感受”,其定語to it在表達時前置,it指代還原為“音樂”,則可以翻譯為“所有我們能做的,就是明確表達我們對于音樂的感受”,或者調整表達為“我們只能明確表達我們對于音樂的感受”。and之后,grasp依據語境,需要翻譯為“理解”。

【譯文總結】這也是為什么當我們試圖用語言來描述音樂時,我們只能明確表達我們對于音樂的感受,而不能完全理解音樂本身。

47. By all accounts he was a freethinking person, and a courageous one, and I find courage an essential quality for the understanding, let alone the performance, of his works.

【句型分析】本句為并列句。第一個分句he was a freethinking person, and a courageous one,句首by all accounts為固定搭配,意思是“根據各方面說”。第二個分句的主干為I find courage an essential quality,其中賓語為courage,而an essential quality是賓語補足語。quality后介詞短語for the understanding of his work為其定語,其中還包含一個插入結構let alone the performance。

【翻譯要點】① 第一個分句結構比較簡單,句首固定搭配by all accounts,可以調整表達,翻譯為“據大家所說”。主干順譯即可,其中he指代“貝多芬”,one指代person。這一部分可以翻譯為“貝多芬是個思想自由、充滿勇氣的人”。

②第二個分句,主干為“我發現勇氣是一個關鍵品質”,quality后為其定語for the understanding of his work,其中the understanding of his work意思為“對于其作品的理解”,做詞性轉化后,可以表達為“理解其作品”,這個介詞短語需要調整語序前置于quality,可以翻譯為“理解他作品的關鍵品質”,則第二個分句可以表達為“我發現勇氣,是理解他作品的關鍵品質”。還可以調整表達為“我發現勇氣這一品質,是理解他作品的關鍵”。

③在定語for the understanding of his work中的插入成分,在邏輯上let alone并列the understanding和the performance,二者共用定語of his works,順譯句末即可:更不必說是演出其作品的關鍵品質。

【譯文總結】人們普遍認為,他(貝多芬)是個思想自由、充滿勇氣的人,我發現勇氣這一品質,是理解他作品的關鍵,更不必說是演出其作品的關鍵。

48. Beethoven’s habit of increasing the volume with an extreme intensity and then abruptly following it with a sudden soft passage was only rarely used by composers before him.

【句型分析】本句主干為Beethoven’s habit was used by composers before him。本句的謂語為被動語態,主語habit后介詞短語of increasing the volume with an extreme intensity and then abruptly following it with a sudden soft passage為其定語,是由介詞of與and并列的兩個動名詞短語increasing the volume with an extreme intensity 和then abruptly following it with a sudden soft passage構成。

【翻譯要點】①本句主干較為簡單,但是主語habit后有很長的后置定語:Habit of increasing the volume…,其中“habit”可以詞性轉換為動詞“習慣”,而中文常常先表達次要信息,則這一部分可以翻譯一句話“貝多芬習慣增加…”,置于句首。第一個動名詞短語中,with an extreme intensity為狀語,表達時需調整語序到其修飾的increasing the volume前,根據語境,volume意思為“音量”,則increasing可以翻譯為“增高”。這一部分可以翻譯為“最大限度來逐漸增高音量”。第二個動名詞短語then abruptly following it with a sudden soft passage,狀語with a sudden soft passage需調整到following it前表達,其中passage根據語境,意思為“樂段”。則這一部分可以表達為“然后突然跟上輕柔的樂段”。整合本句主語與其定語,可以翻譯為“貝多芬習慣最大限度來逐漸增高音量,然后突然跟上輕柔的樂段”。

②本句主干意思為“在他之前,作曲家很少使用貝多芬的習慣”。中文語義重心在后,將本部分翻譯在句末即可。由于前句譯文已經提到這種習慣,則這部分可以表達為“在他之前,作曲家很少使用這種習慣”,結合語境還可以表達為“在他之前,作曲家很少使用這種方式”,或者“在他之前,只有極個別作曲家會使用這種方式”。

【譯文總結】貝多芬習慣最大限度來逐漸增高音量,然后突然跟上輕柔的樂段,在他之前,作曲家很少使用這種方式。

49) Especially significant was his view of freedom, which, for him, was associated with the rights and responsibilities of the individual: he advocated freedom of thought and of personal expression.

【句型分析】本句為完全倒裝,主句的主干是his view of freedom was Especially significant。

his view of freedom后為which引導的非限定性定語從句,修飾freedom,關系代詞which在定語從句中作主語。of the individual修飾the rights and responsibilities,冒號后進行解釋說明。

【翻譯要點】

① 本句主干為完全倒裝,但是在翻譯時,順譯即可,其中his指代“貝多芬的”,主干可以表達為:尤為重要的是,他(貝多芬)對于自由的看法….。

② which引導英語從句,修飾freedom,表達時翻譯成另一句話“對于他而言,這種自由是與個人的權利和責任聯系起來的”,其中for him還可以調整表達為“他認為”。

③冒號后進行解釋,可以翻譯為:他倡導思想自由和個人言論自由。

【譯文總結】尤為重要的是貝多芬對于自由的看法,他認為,這種自由是與個人的權利和責任聯系起來的:他倡導思想自由和個人言論自由。

50. One could interpret much of the work of Beethoven by saying that suffering is inevitable, but the courage to fight it renders life worth living.

【句型分析】本句主句主干為One could interpret much of the work of Beethoven,之后by saying that suffering is inevitable, but the courage to fight it renders life worth living為狀語,修飾interpret。其中that引導賓語從句suffering is inevitable, but the courage to fight it renders life worth living,為saying的賓語,賓語從句中it指代suffering。

【翻譯要點】①本句主語one,可以翻譯為“人們”或者“我們”。主干可以翻譯為“我們可以解釋貝多芬的大部分作品”。

②主干之后的狀語,可以翻譯為“通過說痛苦是無法避免的,但是與之相抗爭的勇氣使得生命值得繼續。”

③整合主干,可以表達為“我們可以這樣解釋貝多芬的大部分作品:苦難是不可避免的,但是與痛苦抗爭的勇氣使得生命值得繼續。”

【譯文總結】我們可以這樣解釋貝多芬的大部分作品:苦難是不可避免的,但是與痛苦抗爭的勇氣使得生命值得繼續。

Part B

52.Directions:

Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should

1) describe the drawing briefly,

2) interpret its intended meaning, and

3) give your comments.

You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.(20 points)

解析: 2014年的大作文從總體上來看不難,因為它考查到了現在的一個社會熱點。而且從十年的考研真題來講,2005年的大作文考查到的是贍養老人的問題,當年的圖畫是可憐的老父親縮成了一只皮球,四個兒女守著四個球門,老人被兒女們踢來踢去。當年全國考生平均分10.88分,難度系數0.544,區分度為0.64764。當年的描述圖畫部分比較難表達,而今年圖畫描述部分相比起來就容易得多。下面我們就從寫作的標準三段式來講講這三段我們應該怎么寫。

第一段圖畫描述段的寫作內容主要是表述圖畫,需包括兩點:三十年前是個什么樣子,現在是什么樣子。三十年前“我”還是個孩子,母親大手拉小手陪伴著我成長;現在,母親上年紀了,我快樂地陪伴在母親的身旁。其實第一段還有兩個需要注意的地方,一是題目要求是一幅圖,大家在寫作時盡量按照一幅圖畫去處理;二是圖畫下面的漢字“相攜”比較難翻譯,不過大家可以意譯為陪伴。這兩個地方不是大問題,因為它相對于作文要考查考生書面表達的要求來說是微不足道的。

第二段是圖畫涵義闡釋段。本段可分兩個方面來具體寫。一方面具體寫明要照顧老人,因為他們為我們付出了自己的青春;另一方面,我們要關愛兒童的成長,因為他們是我們的未來,祖國的希望。

第三段評論段的寫作內容為給出自己的評論和建議。可以指出年輕人應該把尊重和照顧

年邁的父母視為一種道義責任。另外,父母也要關注孩子的成長。只有這樣,我們的家庭才能和睦,社會才能更加和諧!

參考例文:

As is vividly described in the left part of the drawing, thirty years ago, there stood a delicate mother, holding the tiny hand of a lovely girl, who wore a red scarf. On the contrary, the right part of the picture illustrates that with time flying quickly, the little girl, who has already grown up as a gorgeous lady, is supporting her old mother. We are informed: accompanying.

It is without saying that the old and the young are two indispensable parts in society. On the one hand, what we have and enjoy now was created by our parents in the early days, as the old Chinese saying goes, "One generation plants tress under whose shade another generation rests". On the other hand, all of us are supposed to take good care of the youngsters, too. It is children who make us see the future of our state, for they are the future builders of our country.

The young should consider it a moral obligation respecting and taking care of old parents. Meanwhile, it is also the duty of the parents to protect, educate and look after the youths. Let's bear this in mind and cultivate that virtue together, because only by doing so, can we feel as if we were living in a happy and harmonious family.

小編推薦2018年考研沖刺班 夏徛榮 郭繼承 李永樂

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導學、基礎、強化、沖刺、點題班贈19年導學、基礎班 米 鵬 方案 109 580元 購買
考研英語
導學、基礎、強化、沖刺、點題班贈19全程班 夏徛榮 方案 159 620元 購買
考研數學一
包含基礎、強化、沖刺 贈19年特色班課程 李永樂團隊 方案 210 919元 購買
考研數學二
包含基礎、強化、沖刺 贈19年特色班課程 李永樂團隊 方案 210 739元 購買
考研數學三
包含基礎、強化、沖刺 贈19年特色班課程 李永樂團隊 方案 210 919元 購買

醫學碩士

基礎班強化班沖刺班全程班
方案價格購買 方案價格購買方案價格購買方案價格購買
中醫綜合
方案 420元 購買 方案 360元 購買 方案 300元 購買 方案 880元 購買
西醫綜合
方案 420元 購買 方案 360元 購買 方案 300元 購買 方案 880元 購買
輔導課程
輔導體系 授課教師 招生方案 課時 價格 購買
英語二
含導學、基礎、強化、沖刺班 喬老師 方案 108 1600元 購買
數學(全程班)
含導學、基礎、強化、真題、沖刺班 官老師 方案 120 1600元 購買
邏輯(全程班)
導學、基礎、強化、沖刺 真題班 丁老師 方案 120 1600元 購買
寫作(全程班)
含導學、基礎、強化、沖刺班 胡元奎 方案 30 1200元 購買
管綜(全程班)
含數學、邏輯、寫作三部分的基礎、強化、沖刺班 名師團 方案 270 4500元 購買
管綜+英語二
英語二全程班+管綜全程班 比單報優惠600元 名師團 方案 386 5800元 購買
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